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GCSE: Organic Chemistry
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Is the kind of sugar determinative for the release of a higher measure of ethanol? If so, which sugar releases the most ethanol?
We used glucose, cane sugar, fruit sugar and malt sugar for our experiment. The molecular formulas of these sugars and their fermentation equations are: - C6H12O6 (glucose) C6H12O6 --> 2 CH3CH2OH (l) + 2 CO2 (g) - C6H12O6 (fruit sugar) C6H12O6 --> 2 CH3CH2OH (l) + 2 CO2 (g) - C12H22O11 (cane sugar) C12H22O11 --> 4 CH3CH2OH (l) + 4 CO2 (g) - C12H22O11 (malt sugar) C12H22O11 --> 4 CH3CH2OH (l) + 4 CO2 (g) So our question to be answered will be: Is the kind of sugar determinative for the release of a higher measure of ethanol?
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Chem experiment. Objectives: - To see if there are other solvents possible that can replace thinner (as it is quite harmful) while maintaining the dissolution effect of same strength on expanded polystyrene.
due to manufacture of non-biodegradable lunch boxes which greatly aggravates the land pollution in Hong Kong Possible solvents needed to be tried out: Isoamyl acetate (banana oil) Artificial esters( including vanilla, strawberry and coconut favor) Part 2: In order to find out the main constituent component of thinner that is responsible for the dissolution of expanded polystyrene, we put the expanded polystyrene into different main components of thinner of equal amount to observe which main component is the primary cause for dissolution of expanded polystyrene.
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Esters. Esters are formed from an alcohol and carboxylic acid; this is an example of esterification. I am going to write about the chemical reactions of when an ester is made, the ethics of animals used for testing cosmetics, what an emollient is and I w
The most common ester is ethyl ethanoate (ethyl acetate). Ethanol (alcohol) + ethanoic acid (acid) = ethyl ethonate (ester) + water. This is the formula- CH3CH2OH + CH3COOH ? CH3COOCH2CH3 + H2O. This is a colourless liquid and has a sweet smell. Ethyl ethonate has many uses, such as artificial fruit essences and aroma enhancers, artificial flavours for confectionery, ice cream and cakes, as a solvent in many applications (including decaffeinating tea and coffee) for varnishes and paints (nail varnish remover), and for the manufacture of printing inks and perfumes. Ethyl butanoate is an ester with the chemical formula- CH3CH2CH2COOCH2CH3.
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Use a Bunsen burner and an evaporating dish to reduce the volume to half 6) Finally leave to evaporate in a crystallizing dish to produce a white crystalline solid RESULTS My results for the experiment: Rough 1 2 Final burette reading 26.4 26.3 26.4 Initial Burette Reading 0.00 0.00 0.00 Titre 26.4 26.3 26.4 Average Volume = 26.35 Mass of Evaporating dish = 53.86 (Mass = 55.04 - 53.86 = 1.18g) Mass = n x Mr = 0.025 x 58.5 = 1.4625 Calculating Percentage Yield 1.18 x 100 = 80.7 % 1.4625 Test for ions present Sodium Na+ -- test
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Preliminary work Reaction of a metal and acid 2HCl + Mg MgCl2 + H2 Bubbles of hydrogen are produced until all the magnesium has reacted The test for hydrogen is a lighted splint gives out a sort of pop noise. We decided not to use this experiment as there are too many variables such as trying to count all of the bubbles that are produced from the reaction it is also hard to cut the exact same amount of magnesium for each test so we decided not to use this experiment.
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% Yield= (Final mass/Initial mass) X 100% % Yield (Benzoic acid) = (.56/1.1) X 100%= 55% % Yield (Benzil) = (.56/1.29) X 100% = 43% Discussion In this lab, a mixture of two solids was separated to their individual components by extraction. The yields for benzoic acid (55%) and benzyl (43%) were both low. Because of solubility issues (difficulty dissolving all of the starting material) I know that some of the starting material never left the first flask. After the extraction of the benzoic acid and the benzil, I saw that the two solids were now in the original form we started with but they were now separate from each other.
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take a long time to reach this temperature and the dependant variable would still change clearly The independent variable is the variable that is changed to affect the dependant variable. The independent variable is the size of alcohol used or the number of carbon atoms (which determines the alcohol). The dependant variable is the variable that changes depending on the independent variable, which is the change in mass. This is used to calculate the energy released in the reaction. Preliminaries: The reason of doing a preliminary was to confirm the decisions made on the controlled variables, to see that a reasonable mass difference occurred and if not the independent variable which has to be increased on decreased.
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Separation 2. Conversion 3. Purification Separation: * Separation is done by a fractional distillation tower * This is when you refine crude oil into parts. This is called distillation. * The first thing they do is pour the oil in a distillation tower and start to heat it. As it heats it starts to evaporates and goes up the tower and the higher it goes the cooler it is. Because of the temperature change the gas condenses and becomes a liquid and this is how they separate crude oil and the last layer is coal.
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This reduces ground-level ozone formation by lowering volatile organic compound and hydrocarbon emissions, decreasing carcinogenic benzene, particular matter emissions from the combustion of petrol, resulting in fuel burning more cleaning. As aforementioned, ethanol is made by two ways; hydration of ethylene and by the fermentation of sugars or cellulous. Fermentation Ethanol is the most common biologically produced alcohol.
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This means that less food is produced throughout the region so there becomes a food shortage. Because there are less crops the price of those crops have to be increased which then causes a chain reaction of price increases. For example ethanol is produced from corn, because the corn is being used to produce ethanol there is less corn for food purposes. This leads to the price of corn increasing. Corn is used to feed chicken, hogs and cattle so the price of meat, eggs and dairy will also increase. Corn is the main link in this chain so if you damage this link by having small amounts of corn it in turn damages the rest of the chain, being the producers of meat, eggs, dairy etc.
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The melting point or boiling point and an H NMR will also help to determine which product formed. Equations: Data Tables: Reagent Molar Mass (g/mol) Density (g/ml) ml called for ml used grams called for grams used moles used 1,4-dimethoxybenzene 138 0.15 0.15 0.00108 2-methyl-2-propanol 74 0.786 0.25 0.25 0.00266 sulfuric acid (H2SO4) 98.078 1.84 1 1 0.0187 Table 1: Table showing the reagents and the moles used for each reagent used in the alkyation reaction. Limiting Reagent: 1,4-dimethoxybenzene Theoretical Yield Actual Yield Product MW Observed Melting point Literature melting point moles grams grams Percent yield 2,6-tert-butyl-1,4-dimethoxybenzene 250 - - 0.00108 0.27 0.232 85.80% Table 2: Shows the limiting reagent and the product formed from the reaction.
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The base I will be using is sodium carbonate. The alkalis are substances which when dissolved in water furnish hydroxyl ions. e.g.: NaOH = Na+ + OH - According to the Bronsted-Lowry theory the definition of an acid is a proton donor and a base is a proton acceptor. Usefulness of titrations: Titrations are important to understand how acids and bases react with each other, ways to understand detection of experimental error, and to experimentally calculate or figure out what a chemical or substance consists of or the properties it can contain.
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To light the alcohol burner, I will need a flame, for this I will simply use matches. To time the experiment I will use a stop clock and for the temperatures a mercury thermometer. I will use a mercury thermometer instead of a box standard thermometer, as this will give a greater depth of accuracy. For weighing the alcohol burners I will use scales and to record this information including the temperatures I will use tables. To complete this experiment I will need the following equipment: a calorimeter; a water pump; 12x alcohol burners; matches; stop clock; mercury thermometer; wooden blocks; scales & tables to record the data.
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it has many advantages, when it burns it has no harmful products and it gives out more energy per gram than natural gas or petrol. Not only this but existing car engines need only minor changes to adapt to this source. * So what's stopping us splitting water now to get hydrogen??....well that's because a lot more energy is needed as in the UK we would have to burn fossil fuels to get the energy to do this which cancels out any environmental advantages!
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Radioactive decay has a lower energy barrier than fission and therefore is more common. Nuclear Fission involves the absorption of one neutron, whereas radioactive decay does not. Fission also entails numerous neutrons alone being given out and radioactive decay releases particles, which contain neutrons/protons/electrons depending. Hydrogen and Helium nuclei in the synthesis of elements in stars. Hydrogen and helium are the most plentiful elements. They make up approximately 89% and 11% of atoms in the universe. This means they play a pretty major role.
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Other geographic regions' consumption patterns are as follows: South and Central America (44%), Africa (41%), and North America (40%). The world at large consumes 30 billion barrels (4.8 km�) of oil per year, and the top oil consumers largely consist of developed nations. In fact, 24% of the oil consumed in 2004 went to the United States alone. The production, distribution, refining, and retailing of petroleum taken as a whole represent the single largest industry in terms of dollar value on earth. The huge business of oil has not been kind to the world and has left behind a huge environmental impact.
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Acid rain - from sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide - is harmful to the environment. It reacts with metals and rocks such as limestone. Buildings and statues are damaged as a result. Acid rain also damages the waxy layer on the leaves of trees, making it more difficult for them to absorb the minerals they need for healthy growth. These trees may die. And it can make rivers and lakes too acidic for some aquatic life to survive. These things happen in both country and city Page 1... Are the members of the public that live in the country generally healthier than the members of public that live in the city?
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To investigate how concentration affects the rate of reaction between magnesium ribbon and dilute hydrochloric acid.
Therefore as the concentration is increased, the same amount of hydrogen will be produced at a faster rate. The diagram below illustrates this. Apparatus: - * Trough * Delivery Tube * Rubber Bung * Boiling Tube * Magnesium Ribbon * Dilute Hydrochloric Acid (Concentrations 0.5, 1.0, 2.0) * 10cm� Measuring Tube * 100cm� Measuring Tube * 5 25cm� Beakers * Stop clock Diagram: - Safety: - Basis safety equipment must be used, such as a lab coat, wearing a hair band and using safety goggles to stop the dilute hydrochloric acid from getting onto the eyes or skin, and common sense, such as not to knock over beakers of acid.
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This may not necessarily be bad news for people who live near the shore. The boundary waves could be caused by some relatively sudden event, such as a particularly warm year, in which case they will subside. However, if they are driven by an ongoing process of climate change, the difference between coast and ocean could get worse, and flooding could become a bigger problem than scientists have anticipated.
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Safety: HCl is high in concentration and so could be irritant. Lab coat and safety goggles must be worn. Apparatus List: For dilution: * Graduated pipette (5cm-3) * 250cm3 volumetric flask. * Distilled Water. * HCl solution. For titration: * Graduated Pipette (25cm3) * Burette, Stand and Clamp * Funnel * Beaker containing 0.02moldm-3 HCl solution. * Beaker containing limewater of unknown concentration. * Conical Flask * Phenolphthalein Indicator & White Tile Preparations: To work out the number of moles we can use the 'n=m/M' equation.
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From this, I can work out the relative atomic mass of lithium. Ar = Mass so, = 0.11 = 9.16gmol-1 Number of moles 0.012 Resuls/Method 2: Titration of aqueous LiOH with 0.100 moldm-3 HCl. 1 2 3 4 Start Volume (cm3) 0 25.9 0.1 21.5 End Volume (cm3) 25.9 51.5 25.1 47.8 Titre (cm3) 25.9 25.6 25.0 26.3 Summary: On average, 25.0cm3 of LiOH(aq) required 25.7cm3 of 0.100 moldm-3 HCl. LiOH(aq) + HCl(aq) -> LiCl(aq) + H2O(l) The number of moles of HCl used in this titration is the concentration times by the volume.
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Safety: CuCO3 is harmful and irritant. Goggles and a lab coat must be worn. Apparatus/Chemical List: * Conical Flask - 250cm3 * 100cm3 Gas Syringe. * Clamp Stand * Clamp and Boss * Delivery Tube with bung * Boiling Tube * Bunsen Burner * Top-Pan Balance * Spatula * Copper Carbonate, CuCO3 Introduction: As the gas syringe can hold a maximum volume of 100cm3 I am going to work out how much CuCO3 to use so that the maximum volume isn't reached and error is reduced.
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When Goodyear scraped it off he noticed an elastic rim had formed at the edge of the hardened material. He had just got a glimpse of vulcanization rubber. He reasoned sulphur and heat were the key, but was unsure about the proportions. Finally, Goodyear came upon the answer: the application of steam to sulphurized rubber for several hours under pressure, at a temperature of about 270F (132C), resulted in weatherproofing. But he sent samples of his weatherproof rubber to British rubber plants before obtaining a foreign patent, and Thomas Hancock, a man who had been trying to make weatherproof rubber for 20 years saw one of the samples. He reinvented the weather proofing process in 1843 and patented it.
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Variables: Independent: the independent variable is the mass of crucible Dependent: the dependent variable in this experiment is the mass of residue. Controlled: 1. The power loss was controlled. 2. How long the mixture was heated was controlled. 3. The mass of the mixture will be constantly measured. 4. A lid would cover the mixture to minimize power loss. Apparatus: * Bunsen burner * Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate * Lid * Crucible * Tongs * Tripod * Safety glasses * Scale Method: 1.
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Why have farmers in the present time relied on use of artificial fertilizers rather than organic fertilizers? Plants need numerous different chemical elements in order to grow and thrive. The biogenic chemical elements which are particularly important for the growth of plants are nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium, and they are needed in large quantities (see Appendix A). However in reality as generally they accumulate in soils in the process of microorganisms decomposing dead of plants and wastes of animals sources of these macronutrients are limited naturally, so their availability in soils tends to be so low that they can become deficient very often due to the difficulty of natural replacement.
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