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Investigate how the temperature of a fluid affects its viscosity.

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Introduction

James Gwyer 11th February 2004 Investigation - Viscosity Aim To investigate how the temperature of a fluid affects its viscosity. Method Apparatus Required o Water bath o Thermometer o Measuring cylinder o Steel ball bearing o Micrometer o Balance o Honey (100cm3) o Stopwatch o Ruler Plan o Measure the radius of the ball bearing and also find its weight. o Find the mass of the honey. Weighing an empty measuring cylinder and then the same cylinder with the honey in it does this. The difference in the two recordings is the mass of the honey. o Find the density of both the steel and the honey. The equation Density = Mass Volume will be needed to calculate these. o Fill the measuring cylinder with 100cm3 of honey and place inside the water bath. o Fill the water bath with water of various different temperatures which are recorded before the experiment is carried out. Leave the water for about two minutes to allow the honey to change temperature and then record its temperature. o Using the point of terminal velocity which is marked on the cylinder, as a start point, release the ball bearing and begin timing from this point until it reaches the bottom. The velocity can then be calculated by distance/time and can now be used to find the coefficient of viscosity. ...read more.

Middle

Density =mass/volume =0.1419/100 =1.419 x 10-3 kg m-3 Ball Bearing Mass - This was again needed to find the density. I used a special balance used for smaller objects. Mass =4.07g =0.00407kg (This was converted to kg as it is needed in this unit to find the density) Radius - I used a micrometer to find the diameter of the ball bearing and simply divided it by 2 to find the radius. Diameter 10.42mm Radius 5.21mm =0.00521m (Needed in m to calculate the density) Volume = 4r3 3 = 5.92 x 10-7 m3 Density = Mass/volume = 0.00407/5.92 x 10-7 = 6870.6 kg m-3 Viscosity of the Honey To find the viscosity of the honey, I will need to use the following formula: 2r2g (? steel - ? honey) 9v r=radius of the ball bearing g=gravitational force v=velocity of the ball bearing Results Analysis My results show that as the temperature of the honey increases, the viscosity decreases. This is the same as I predicted. The graph I created shows a steady decrease in viscosity. The temperature of the honey is proportional to its viscosity as when one increases in size, the other will decrease. The viscosity decreases because when the fluid is heated, it expands, meaning the particles become more spaced apart from each other, as there is more room for them to move. ...read more.

Conclusion

Because of this, the error would be small and a large error could only be made by failure to record the reading correctly. Total Percentage Error = 2 + 0.5 + 0.4 + 0.4 = 3.3% This is a small percentage error and so it shouldn't have too much of an effect on my results. Because of this, I can assume that my results are reliable and that I did not make any mistakes when carrying out the investigation. Making it Better To improve my experiment, I could have ensured that I was carrying each test out at the same temperature to ensure a fair test was being carried out. I should have gone through it slower to ensure that I made no mistakes myself which can be rectified with a bit more care being taken. I could have recorded the density of the honey at each different temperature. This again would have made my results much more accurate and reliable. Conclusion Overall, I am happy with how I have carried out this investigation. I produced what I set out to achieve, which was to find the effect of temperature on the viscosity of honey. My results matched my prediction well and are both reliable and accurate. The basic rule is that as the temperature of a fluid increases, its viscosity decreases. ...read more.

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