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Cloning means making a living thing from another living thing such as a plant or animal. The process uses the genes of the first so they both have identical DNA.

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Introduction

TRANSLATION PRACTICE -1st year CLONING Cloning means making a living thing from another living thing such as a plant or animal. The process uses the genes of the first so they both have identical DNA. Cloning isn't new. Nature has been doing it for billions of years with plants. Things like potatoes and grass send out shoots which can grow into a whole new plant. If you grow a plant from a cutting it's a type of cloning. And identical twins are naturally-occurring clones of each other even though they're genetically different from their parents. ...read more.

Middle

Scientists in Scotland used a new type of technique. When Dolly was born months later, it had taken 276 tries to get it right. Since Dolly, cows, pigs, monkeys, rodents, cats, mules, horses and dogs have been cloned. Animals or plants with special qualities could be mass produced to help in the manufacture of important drugs. You could replace pets which have died or even repopulate endangered or extinct species. In 2001 the first clone of an endangered animal was born; a baby bull gaur (a wild ox) called Noah. ...read more.

Conclusion

It was made illegal to clone embryos to make babies in 2001. Opponents of cloning say cloning humans is very wrong because it goes against nature. Why would we want to clone ourselves? It doesn't have to be a whole human being which is cloned. Scientists could copy our cells and fix genes that cause diseases. Or new organs like skin or hearts could be grown to help people who are ill. People who can't have babies might also be helped. What's the problem with cloning? About 98% of cloning efforts fail. Usually a cloned embryo dies before birth but sometimes afterwards too. Most of the survivors have potentially fatal heart or lung problems or diseases like diabetes. ...read more.

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Response to the question

The student has described cloning and given examples where this occurs both in nature and in the scientific laboratory. The student has begun to analyse the use of cloning in depth and has shown some knowledge of the ethics behind ...

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Response to the question

The student has described cloning and given examples where this occurs both in nature and in the scientific laboratory. The student has begun to analyse the use of cloning in depth and has shown some knowledge of the ethics behind this controversial topic.

Level of analysis

Throughout the essay the student uses appropriate and detailed examples to illustrate the point they are making, for example describing Dolly the sheep as well as some less well known mammal clones. The student recognises that cloning of an organism isn’t a new concept and that cloning exists naturally as in asexual reproduction of plants such as potatoes (as they mentioned). However, they don’t mention that bacteria and other organisms can reproduce asexually to produce identical clones of the original organism. Also mammals undergo mitosis which is also a natural form of cloning. To improve the student should include more detail on asexual reproduction. The student has clearly thought about the advantages of cloning mammals and their uses in medicine or to replace endangered animals. In the section about human cloning the student gives both arguments, although could have gone in to some more detail about the ethics behind cloning. The student also comments on the problems of cloning in the laboratory and gives accurate figures to support this.

Quality of writing

The student’s grammar and spelling are great throughout, although in some places the essay is a little informal. Also using the word “organism” instead of “living thing” would be more appropriate.


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Reviewed by zonexi 01/03/2012

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