• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Cloning pros and cons

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Cloning A group of genetically identical offspring produced by asexual reproduction is called a clone. The nucleus of every cell of an individual contains the genetic information needed to develop the entire organism. It is therefore possible under suitable conditions to produce a whole organism from a single cell. If a cell divides mitotically it will produce a clone. If each cell of the clone is separated and allowed to develop into the complete organism, a group of genetically identical offspring is formed. This is known as cloning. (2). Two very different procedures have been referred to as "cloning": * Embryo cloning has been successfully carried out for years on many species of animals. Some limited experimentation has been done on human embryos. * Adult DNA cloning has been used to clone a sheep, but was not tried on humans until 1998-DEC (3) Humans often think of themselves as being superior to other animals (not to mention plants, fungi, bacteria and so on) and therefore having the "right" to exploit other organisms for their own benefit. (1) The cloning of the sheep, Dolly, in 1997 was an inevitable consequence of the progress being made in genetics and biotechnology. ...read more.

Middle

(4) The Council of Europe has passed human cloning protocol, for example, which states: "The instrumentalisation of human beings through the deliberate creation of genetically identical human beings is contrary to human dignity and thus constitutes a misuse of medicine and biology." Human dignity is continually debated in the ethics of biotechnology. (6) There are many risks involved with cloning: health risks from mutation of genes - an abnormal baby would be a nightmare come true. The technique is extremely risky right now. A particular worry is the possibility that the genetic material used from the adult will continue to age so that the genes in a newborn baby clone could be - say - 30 years old or more on the day of birth. Many attempts at animal cloning produced disfigured monsters with severe abnormalities. So that would mean creating cloned embryos, implanting them and destroying (presumably) those that look imperfect as they grow in the womb. However some abnormalities may not appear till after birth. A cloned cow recently died several weeks after birth with a huge abnormality of blood cell production. ...read more.

Conclusion

You cannot have so-called therapeutic cloning without reproductive cloning because the technique to make cloned babies is the same as to make a cloned embryo to try to make replacement tissues. In any case it is a myth that you will get organs from cloned embryos. At best you will get clusters of cells. And at the speed at which biotech is accelerating there will soon be other ways to get such cells. (5) A child born permanently deaf, or lame, or blind, or with short life expectancy would surely have grounds for complaints if these characteristics were deliberately chosen. Why then do some people feel that designing children to be healthy, talented or to possess some beneficial feature might be wrong? (7) The phrase "designer children" has clear negative connotations. The implication is that parents are more concerned with pleasing themselves than with valuing children for their own sake. However, normal sexual reproduction has always had a large element of design in it. Cultures, religion and races that have encouraged their members to marry other members of the same group are all into designer children. If creating a world with less disability and disease seem preferable, then, like me, you will believe in minimising disease and disability and maximising health and good fortune. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Variation and Inheritance section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Here's what a star student thought of this essay

5 star(s)

Response to the question

The response to the question is done very well. The candidate explains what cloning is before focusing on the advantages and disadvantages by topic. They synthesise the different topics together well and the essay flows very well to read. They ...

Read full review

Response to the question

The response to the question is done very well. The candidate explains what cloning is before focusing on the advantages and disadvantages by topic. They synthesise the different topics together well and the essay flows very well to read. They show a good depth of research with the number of topics they consider.

Level of analysis

The introduction outlines what cloning is in a very accurate way. The candidate also references their sources in a very professional way not normally seen at this level of qualification. The candidate shows deep analysis and links between a variety and topics and concerns about cloning to a very high level of detail. The candidate also shows research and consideration of the moral obligations behind cloning and its possible impacts on a larger scale. The piece lacks an overall conclusion which is needed to tie up loose ends and provide an overall opinion on the subject.

Quality of writing

Punctuation, grammar and spelling all done to a very high level. The format of the essay is very good being split into very easy to read paragraphs.


Did you find this review helpful? Join our team of reviewers and help other students learn

Reviewed by skatealexia 30/08/2012

Read less
Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Variation and Inheritance essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Biology Case Study

    4 star(s)

    designed to assess how well the drug actually works and safety of the drug. Drugs tend to fail more often when in phase 2. This Phase of the clinical trial also sees the use of a placebo. Some patients will receive the drug while others will receive a placebo.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Research in Genetic Engineering Should Be Halted. Discuss

    3 star(s)

    In 1987, a company called Advanced Genetic Sciences conducted two controversial experiments on a strawberry patch in California. The company altered bacteria in order to prevent crops from freezing in hard frost. Once hundreds, even thousands, of new-manipulated organisms are let loose, the results could be devastating.

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Biology - Cloning. In this case study I shall explain the divisive subject of ...

    3 star(s)

    They're only about 30,000 years old. This difference in age gives the DNA much less time to decompose. But a mammoth cloning project would still require a perfectly preserved specimen. The mammoth's tissue couldn't have gone through cycles of freezing and thawing or been preserved at extremely low temperatures that could damage the DNA.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Cloning. Should it be banned? I will explain all the different types of cloning ...

    Because the book is used in schools across the country and is used for education, I am reassured that the information will be reliable enough to use for my investigation. 'Dolly the sheep was the first ever cloned sheep. Dolly the sheep was highly significant as it showed that cloning of a complex animal was possible.

  1. Peer reviewed

    Is Cloning Ethical?

    4 star(s)

    However, there are many arguments against cloning. Many people, religious people in particular, are of the opinion that cloning is "acting as god". They believe that life is sacred, right from conception, and that to mess with this is to mess with the gift of life.

  2. The causes and consequences of variation

    in different geographical locations. Disruptive selection is an example of speciation. This type of selection favours the extremes in a range of variation at the expense of the mean. Organism who's phenotypes correspond to the mean in this range are at a disadvantage.

  1. Selective Breeding

    produced in the offspring These individuals then form the new variety (plants) or breed (animals) Questions (pg. 337) TOP * Some characteristics can be breed for in selective breeding as they are coded for by genes thus can be manipulated.

  2. Research Project "Is Cloning Beneficial or Harmful?"

    Prevention and cure of sickle cell anemia 4. Production of insulin 5. Cloning animals 6. Modified plants There haven?t been many ethical or moral issues surrounding DNA cloning and they more of a benefit then a threat. 4.2 Therapeutic cloning There are many ethical issues related to stem cell research.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work