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concentration of acid rain

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Introduction

Determination of the concentration of acid rain The burning of fossil fuels has released tonnes of sulphur dioxide into the atmosphere, the consequence of which has been the formation of acid rain. Rain water is naturally acidic due to the presence of hydrocarbonate ions, but for this exercise it is to be assumed that all the acidity is caused by the presence of sulphuric acid. Aim: to calculate the concentration of sulphuric acid in acid rain. After consideration I have decided to use sodium hydroxide to calculate the concentration of the acid rain by means of an acid base reaction in a simple titration. Sodium carbonate was another alkali that I could have used but there are complications when using it in an acid base reaction. ...read more.

Middle

H2SO4 + 2NaOH ? Na2SO4 + 2H2O As you can see we need twice as much sodium hydroxide compared to the sulphuric acid, so a concentration of 0.02 moles will be suitable. To make a solution of 0.02 moles I will need: * A mass balance that goes to two decimal places. * A 25ml pipette * Sodium hydroxide crystals * Deionised water * A 250ml volumetric flask * A 500ml beaker * A weighing bath 1. First weigh and record the weighing bath. Then weigh out 2g of the sodium hydroxide crystals. Pour the crystals into the 500ml beaker and dissolve in 100ml of deionised water. ...read more.

Conclusion

Then you will have a sodium hydroxide solution of 0.02 molar concentration. Sodium hydroxide is a deliquescent molecule, this means that it will absorb water from the atmosphere, which will in turn decrease the concentration. If the concentration is lower this means that my concentration calculations will be wrong. So it is important that a fresh batch of sodium hydroxide is made so that the concentration will be exact. For my titration I have decided to use bromothyml blue because its transition pH range is approximately 6.0-7.6. This range is very close to a neutral solution, which is the pH we are trying to achieve. METHOD: 1. Gather together the following apparatus: * 200ml NaOH solution of 0.02M concentration * 80ml HCl solution of unknown concentration * Bromothyml blue * 20ml pipette * Burette * 4 conical flasks * Distilled water * funnel 2. ...read more.

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