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concntraion of calium hydroxide

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Introduction

To determine the concentration of a calcium hydroxide solution Aim: Our aim is to use a standard solution of hydrochloric acid to find the concentration of limewater (Calcium hydroxide). Indicator: Choosing a suitable indicator is important, I had to be extremely careful with this, I have chosen to use the indicator methyl orange. The limewater used will be a relatively weak base so it will be appropriate for using methyl orange and the acid that I am using is strong. Safety notes: * Safety goggles must be worn at all times whilst carrying out this experiment. Hydrochloric acid: * Contact with the eyes or skin can cause serious permanent damage. When in contact with the eyes immediately rinse the eye with plenty of water and call for medical help. * If in contact with skin rinse thoroughly and if redness on skin occurs call for medical help. Calcium hydroxide: * Powder may irritate the eyes. So if contact with eyes immediately rinsed the eyes with plenty of water, if irritation persists then calls for medical help. Since we are provided with a solution there is no particular danger. ...read more.

Middle

Various apparatus are needed to carry out this dilution and the equation that can be used to do this is: Volumetric flask/pipette volume = 66.67 My chosen volumetric flask is 250cm3 so my pipette volume = 250/66.67 = 3.75cm3 therefore as this is just an approximate I will round this number to 4.00 cm3 This requires a 5 cm3 graduated pipette. I will pipette 4.0 cm3 of 2.00 mol dm-3 acid from the 5.0 cm3 graduated pipette into a 250cm3 volumetric flask. Subsequently make the solution so that it is up to the mark on the 250cm3 with distilled water and shake thoroughly to make sure the solution is of a consistent concentration. The new concentration of this acid is: 4.0cm of 2.00 mol dm-3 Moles = concentration � volume Moles = 2.00 � 0.004 Moles = 0.008 Concentration = moles/volume Concentration = 0.008/0.25 Concentration = 0.032 mol dm-3 I will round this number up as it is just an approximation to 0.030 mol dm-3 As a result this solution has a new concentration of 0.030 mol dm-3 Titration method: 1. ...read more.

Conclusion

9. Whilst adding the calcium hydroxide I will swirl the conical flask constantly to see the colour change as I have to make sure that I don't add too much of my alkali solution in and make sure that the colour change lasts for at least 30 seconds. 10. I will record this result as my trial result as I may not get the right colour or I will use it to compare the colour with the rest of my results. 11. After that I will rinse my conical flask thoroughly with tap water then with distilled water. 12. I will then repeat step 8. This time when the volume is 2cm3 less than the volume required add the calcium hydroxide drop by drop so I don't add too much. The main thing that I will note whilst doing this titration the colour of the solution must be the palest pink. This is the end point 13. repeat step 12 at least twice more times until I get concordant results of 0.1cm3 14. When I have done this I will rinse all my equipment out and put them away. ...read more.

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Response to the question

The focus of the question is done well. The candidate provides accurate worked out solutions and explains how to dilute the HCl to the desired concentration. The main thing missing is the ending of the experiment which is not included ...

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Response to the question

The focus of the question is done well. The candidate provides accurate worked out solutions and explains how to dilute the HCl to the desired concentration. The main thing missing is the ending of the experiment which is not included in this format.

Level of analysis

The candidate only explains weakly why they will use the methyl orange indicator. To improve they should compare other indicators and explain their choice with its properties for thoroughly for the suitability for the experiment to go ahead. They explain the safety elements behind the experiment well. The equation used is in a correct format with correct balancing used. The dilution and titration methods used are calculated accurately and explained well. Decimal places lack consistency in one or two places and this could affect the accuracy of the results.

Quality of writing

Punctuation, grammar and spelling all done to a good level. The candidate lays the essay out in a good format. The referencing could have been done a bit tidier by using the harvard referencing format.


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Reviewed by skatealexia 24/08/2012

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