• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Controlling human reproduction with in vitro fertilisation (IVF).

Extracts from this document...


There are many ways that human reproduction can be controlled either for better or for worse. One of the ways of controlling human reproduction is with in vitro fertilisation (IVF), this is widely used across the country for various reasons, for example IVF can be used to help infertile couples, single women, gay couples and many others to have children. IVF is quite a long process that has become more successful and popular in recent years. The process involves the women's ovaries being stimulated with hormones such as FSH (follicles stimulating hormone) or HMG (human menopausal gonadotrophin) so as to make sure that she produces several eggs, which means that there will be more eggs available to be collected. The eggs are removed from the ovaries using a special needle. On the same day that the egg is retrieved a semen sample is collected form the man. After they have both been collected the sperm are added to the eggs and then left to incubate over night. If fertilisation occurs they will be left for a few days in the laboratory to be observed before being placed into the women's uterus. ...read more.


In the future we may be able to select our child's hair colour by removing the inappropriate genes. The screening of embryos for genetic diseases is called preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). As with IVF the women's ovaries are first stimulated to produce lots of eggs. 'These eggs are then recovered through vaginal ultrasound, and the sperm added to the eggs in the IVF lab.' After in vitro fertilisation, an embryo biopsy is carried out using Narishige micromanipulators. An inverted tissue culture microscope is used to allow them to see what they are doing. The embryo is held in position with a holding pipette. A glass needle is used to drill a hole through the zona pellucida, which is the outer layer of the embryo. By sucking gently, a single cell is removed; it is then ready for genetic diagnosis. Genetic material is analysed using a technique called FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridisation). This uses fluorescent probes, which are specific for a given chromosome, and therefore can be used to screen embryos for chromosomal abnormality. ...read more.


This may then create two different types of people those with 'superior genes' and those with 'ordinary genes.' There is a lot of controversy over controlling human reproduction. In the future we may be able to stop certain children being born simply because of their hair colour. But should we be allowed to do this who are we to say that their life should end just because they are genetically different. As well as that there are still a lot of problems with genetic engineering and some experiments such as the Beltsville pig have gone 'horribly wrong causing it to grow into a monster.' Moderating human reproduction should be done to help people not just to allow people to have a 'designer babies.' By altering the human genome it may make children more prone to new illness or it may be the answer to curing existing illnesses. We don't and can't know unless we explore further. Gene therapy and genetic testing could benefit our society, and us but we must air and debate these issues with in the wider community in order to set strict regulations to ensure the ethical, moral, and discriminatory possibilities of this newly evolving technology. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Variation and Inheritance section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Variation and Inheritance essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Embryo Screening. The embryo screening, also referred as PGD (preimplantation genetic diagnosis), is ...

    5 star(s)

    are the carriers, so the results are not revealed to the parents. This can be due to the fact that they might get emotionally upset over the issue, especially women, even though it is technically not their fault. But that is how they he/she might look at the situation.

  2. Peer reviewed

    Why is sexual reproduction so common in nature?

    5 star(s)

    Such relations imply that the resultant combined effects of both mechanisms are likely to be more advantageous than the sum of their parts. One of the main problems with the RQ hypothesis is that it requires that parasites have a severe detrimental effect on the host fitness, or alternatively, only the fittest hosts will survive to reproductive maturity.

  1. Peer reviewed

    Cellular Reproduction

    4 star(s)

    Finally, the last phase of mitosis called Telophase in which the daughter chromatids are fully pulled toward the poles and the nuclear envelope begins to reappear, the cell also begins to cleave, usually in the spot where the chromatids lined up in metaphase.

  2. Genetics Research

    HD affects as many people as Hemophilia, Cystic Fibrosis or muscular dystrophy. Early symptoms of Huntington's Disease may affect cognitive ability or mobility and include depression, mood swings, forgetfulness, clumsiness, involuntary twitching and lack of coordination. As the disease progresses, concentration and short-term memory diminish and involuntary movements of the head, trunk and limbs increase.

  1. Cloning Human Beings Is Not Ethical.

    couples said to have no other choice and to replace a child who has died. Because of these rare benefits, bioethicists are trying to persuade us to accept the entire cloning concept, leaving out the consequences. All people should realize that research cloning is akin to abortion because the clone is destroyed in the process.

  2. Should Cloning Human Beings Be Legallised In the United Kingdom?

    Likewise, about half of cloned children will suffer over bodily development. Most will have enlarged placentas and faulty livers. Similarly, three in four foetuses that may survive will most likely be large in weight, at approximately 15lb. This will cause death within the first few weeks after birth; as the

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work