• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9
  10. 10
    10
  11. 11
    11
  12. 12
    12
  13. 13
    13
  14. 14
    14
  15. 15
    15
  16. 16
    16
  17. 17
    17
  18. 18
    18

Cromford Village and Mills, Derbyshire

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

The site Cromford Village and Mills, Derbyshire By: Joseph McHale 11P Introduction During the period between 1771 and 1800 Cromford Mills were built and Cromford Village was considerably enlarged. It was built by Sir Richard Arkwright, who had invented the waterframe in 1769. The invention of the waterframe and the development of other mechanised machines turned the cotton industry from a domestic "cottage" industry into a factory driven one. The mill proved to be a great success and subsequently historians have studied a number of issues concerning both the mill and village at Cromford, which played an important part in British economic history. Unfortunately these studies have not proved to be fully conclusive as a large part of the mill was burnt down in 1890 and this has meant that certain issues have been left open to debate. This study intends to consider the same issues historians study and by using primary and secondary sources, will try to draw a balanced conclusion about the structure of both the Cromford Mill and Cromford Village during the period between 1771 and 1800. In particular this investigation will try to establish why Arkwright chose Cromford as a site for his mill? Why Cromford There were three reasons that we can consider important to the answer this question. These were: 1. The water supply; 2. the remoteness of Cromford; and 3. the readiness and willingness of the workforce that Cromford offered together with the skills developed in particular in the local lead industry. In addition to these specific factors there was an element of luck, which, combined to make Cromford an important milestone in the country's economic development. Sources Source 1 states that Arkwright chose Cromford because of the three main reasons we have mentioned. The water supply at Cromford is good and is plentiful all year round. The Cromford Sough was situated underground so it could not freeze during the winter. ...read more.

Middle

The likely changes that Arkwright made to the watercourses are shown Source 10 below. The Greyhound Pond shown in the top left-hand corner of Source 10 is one of five ponds that Arkwright made. It was made by putting a dam on the Bonsall Brook. Before Arkwright adjusted the watercourses, only the Bonsall Brook went directly to the mill site. Arkwright linked the Greyhound Pond to the Cromford Sough, from the Cromford Sough Dam he made a new watercourse went over a aqueduct and powered the first waterwheel at the mill. On the other side of The Greyhound Pond he built a sluice, which controlled the amount of water allowed through. The new watercourse was underground and powered a second waterwheel on the first mill. The underground water sources allowed the water to be used throughout the year, as it would not freeze. Source 10 shows the watercourses and is an accurate and reliable source; we have no evidence to doubt it. Source 11 shows The Greyhound Pond and the linking channel to the Cromford Sough. The linking channel is on the left side of the photograph, under the cars shown. When the first mill was built in 1771 there was only one waterwheel. The position of this waterwheel is subject to debate. I believe that the first waterwheel was originally situated in the area that the extension was built in. In Source 12 below you can see the difference in brickwork between the two sections. This proves that the extension was built. The Bonsall Brook flows underneath the extension. When Arkwright first started developing his mill at Cromford, the Bonsall Brook was the only watercourse that ran through the mill. It is likely that Arkwright used the Bonsall Brook to power his first waterwheel. But at the same time he was adjusting and creating other watercourses so he could have two waterwheels working at the first mill. ...read more.

Conclusion

The water supply, which the mill had relied upon throughout its success, was reduced as a result of a lead mine drainage. Other factories across Britain were using steam power, which was more efficient than waterpower. Also the remoteness of Cromford was proving a larger problem as more mills better equipped than Cromford had been set up across Britain. But even though it demised after 70 years it is still considered a massive success and was a pioneer for industrial practice. The impact that the Cromford mill had on industry in the eighteenth century is a similar one of the impacts the computer had on industry in the twentieth century. The technology that the mill used changed the face of industry. On the social side the housing that Arkwright built for his workers changed housing around Britain and provided a template to other entrepreneurs who wished to build good quality homes for their workers. The housing built for workers, who in the past lived in poor accommodation was excellent and North Street remains standing today as a testament to the original builders. Across Britain one will find many streets with a similar design to North Street. The mill at Cromford was part of the first stage of the Industrial Revolution. Technology was rapidly changing and it was always likely that the mill would be outdated after a period of time, just like computers today. The Cromford mill could not compare to a mill that was built 50 years afterwards the same as a computer built 10 years ago could not compare with a computer today. The Industrial Revolution moved at a fast pace and left Cromford behind. But Cromford is remembered as the pioneer in the Industrial Revolution as it was the worlds first successful cotton mill and it had superb housing for the workers. Arkwright when he was alive wanted to gain social acceptance and wanted to be remembered, the mill and village have assured that he will always be remembered as an integral part of British history. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Green Plants as Organisms section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Green Plants as Organisms essays

  1. Three Gorges Dam Essay.

    Beijing being one of these cities, receives the bulk of its drinking water from one reservoir which is now only a third as full as it once was. This is due to high consumption rates and recent years with droughts causing the water table to fall and eventually run dry.

  2. Investigation into the relationship between the density of fresh water shrimps in fleet brook ...

    Sites whose water pH is too low or high will not contain many gammarus. The pH of the water is tested at every site. This is to make sure that every site tested all have the same pH. Sites whose pH is significantly different from all of the other sites are not chosen to take samples from.

  1. Nuclear Power

    which makes the layer positive (p-type layer) due to the lack of electrons. When the layers are sandwiched together, the area where they meet (junction) develops an electric charge as nearby extra electrons from the n-type layer fill nearby spaces in the p-type layer until they balance out.

  2. Sensor Project

    From the graph it is seen that water from 2400 to 2800ml it has a bigger voltage which is cause by the different smoothness and slippage of the potentiometer at different point. It is difficult to completely secure the float arm to the potentiometer.

  1. The history of the canals

    the boat out of the lock and pull along side the towpath side of the canal so you can wait for your crew! * Close the top gates after the boat has left the lock * Close the top paddles * The crew on the side of the canal head towards your boat.

  2. What considerations led Samuel Greg to set up a Cotton Spinning Mill at Styal ...

    This was very cheap. Samuel Greg also bought a number of large fields and four cottages with permission to have his servants and apprentices to live of the land. One consideration that led Samuel Greg to build a mill at Styal was that it was cheap to own.

  1. How did Leamington develop into a typical spa town of the mid nineteenth century?

    main London to Warwick road and the stagecoaches passed through this way, and the land on the south side of the river is limestone and so it makes it easier for the water to rise up and the spring water is easy to find when digging down.

  2. History of the ALP Project.

    Hydrology plays a big part in the production of the dam. This project would negatively impact the flow regime in the Animas and San Juan Rivers. Recreation may be an economical leap, although there is a potential for a small negative impacts to rafting and fishing in the Animas River.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work