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Demonstrate how the changing concentration of the hydrochloric acid affects the amount of carbon dioxide produced when it is added to marble chips.

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Introduction

CHEMISTRY INVESTIGATION: HCl CONCENTRATION ON MARBLE CHIPS Planning Introduction & Aim The investigation we are performing is about the concentration of hydrochloric acid on powdered marble, and what effect it has on the reaction and the amount of gas produced. My aim is to demonstrate how the changing concentration of the hydrochloric acid affects the amount of carbon dioxide produced when it is added to marble chips. We have performed similar experiments before which will help us to know which safety precautions to take and sensible measurements of the substances involved. The chemical reaction which occurs in my experiment is: 2HCl + CaCo CaCl + H O Factors which may affect the experiment When a reaction takes place the particles of the reacting substance must collide with each other and the activation energy must be reached for the reaction to occur. The reaction will occur if there is a collision between the particles and they produce enough energy, which results in a reaction to occur. A reaction can be speeded up, slowed down, changed and generally affected if the number of collisions is changed by changing any of theses factors. Pressure- this could change the reaction by compressing or expanding the CO2 produced. Gas can be compressed or expanded to fit its container. This means that we would read the gas syringe incorrectly. However, it is unlikely that the pressure would change significantly in the lab without artificial help. Temperature- An increase in temperature leads to an increase in the rate of reaction. This is due to the particles, which move faster when there is an increase in temperature. When the particles are moving faster there are bound to be more collisions. ...read more.

Middle

We then repeated all these results 5 times so that we could take an average and give us a more correct result. I think we need at least this many to give us a fair average- otherwise it might be biased by anomalous points. We then put all the results into tables, took averages and drew graphs. Safety: Where any of the results went straight up to 100 cm cubed, after 5 seconds we removed the bung from the test tube. If much longer had been left, this could have been dangerous due to a build up of pressure resulting in the shattering of the test tube. Prediction The experiment we will do will involve the concentration of 2M HCl when it is added to powdered marble. I predict that the lower the concentration of HCl the less gas will be produced in the 60 seconds we will be timing for. I think this will happen because water does not react with marble, so the less HCl there is in the conical flask, the smaller the reaction and so less gas will be produced. Obtaining Evidence The most important thing in the whole experiment is that we performed it in a safe way. For this reason, we wore safety goggles throughout and we used the HCl cautiously to make sure that we didn't spill anything. We both made sure that we knew that if we did spill any on ourselves or anything else, we would halt the experiment immediately and wash our hands thoroughly and wipe up any HCl that might have been spilt. ...read more.

Conclusion

If I did the experiment again, I would like a better system of preventing any gas from escaping so that the results were more accurate and it was a fairer test. We could have used something that had a separate container inside it which we could have put the marble chips in and the HCl in the main container. Then we could have tipped the small container inside the large one to release the chips. No gas could have escaped. We also could have done more experiments between the ones we performed, at say 0.3M, 0.4M etc. This would have made our results more reliable and would have backed up our result with more evidence. I could have drawn my graph on the computer which would have made it more accurate, but the facilities for drwing line graphs mean that the line follows the points exactly and does not allow for anomolous results and so does not give a smooth curve. This would not have allowed me to draw a reliable graph or find the gradient of the lines, which meant that although it was not a great option, I had to do it by hand. I think we had enough results to draw a sensible conclusion because we still managed to get clear results to prove our prediction right even though we did have a couple of anomalous results. However we only had one slight anomolus result, on the 0.5M line on the graph, and the fact that the tables showed that the 1.5M acid produced more gas than the 0.75M acid, which shows that although our capabilities were limited, we managed to prove our prediction, even if it was not as accurate as we would have liked. ...read more.

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