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# Densities of liquids

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Densities of liquids Concepts 1. Density is a physical property of materials 2. Equal volumes of different things usually have different weights 3. Heating and cooling cause changes in properties 4. Principle of Archimedes Chemical properties cannot be quantified: they are described by chemical reactions in which the substance participates. Physical properties can be expressed quantitatively measured by mathematical formulas derived from the basic units of measurement: Length, time, mass and charge. Density is one such physical property of substances that scientists use on a regular basis. For synthetic organic chemists two uses are important. First it is often more convenient and safe to measure a liquid by volume than by weight. In order to know the weight and therefore the number of molecules, the density of the substance must be known. Second when mixing water and a water insoluble liquid it is important to know which liquid phase will float on the top of the mixture and which liquid will sink to the bottom. In this experiment we will measure the density of some liquids and explore some variables. ...read more.

Middle

Volume of the density bottles could vary as each density bottle is an individual and could have slight variation. Different sizes of Glass stoppers and density bottles meaning could cause a variable in my results. The density bottles not being cleaned out properly and still having residue from the last liquid which could cause inaccurate results Formulas used to help me find the density of the liquids used. Density = mass volume to find the volume I rearranged this equation to find the volume Volume = Mass Density Relative Density = mass of substance (liquid used) mass of mass of distilled water Actual density of substance = relative density of substance x density of water at 23?c Compare masses of substance mass of water = relative density Safety precautions of experiment * Not using the same pipette so you do not contaminate liquid * Do not hold bottle by bottom only hold by the neck risk assessment for using chemicals * Wearing goggles * Hair tied up * Wearing gloves to prevent irritation * Use tissue to wipe of chemical off bottle * wipe table down as filled density bottle could over flow Calibration No of density Bottle Mass of density bottle empty(g) ...read more.

Conclusion

Empty = 21.79g mass of relevant density bottle and distilled water = 45.97 g no of density bottle (297) mass of empty density bottle (141) = 19.96 g mass of empty density bottle (141) and alcohol = 39.86 g Mass of empty density bottle (127) = 19.46 g Mass of empty density bottle (127) and acetone (propanone) = 39.24 g Mass of empty density bottle (17) = 22.10 g mass of empty density bottle (17) and propan-1-ol = 42.35 g Mass of empty density bottle ( 124) = 20.26 g Mass of empty density bottle (124) and propan-2-ol = 40.64 g Mass of empty density bottle (45) = 20.08 g Mass of empty density bottle (45) and ethane 1,2 diol = 48.30 g mass of density bottle (102) = 20.37 g mass of empty density bottle (102) and glycerol = 52.43 No of density bottle mass of density bottle empty mass of empty density bottle +chemical chemical used in the density bottle Density of chemical at 23?c volume 12 22.10 42.35 propan-1-ol 127 19.46 39.84 acetone 141 19.96 39.86 alcohol 124 20.26 40.64 propan-2-ol 45 20.08 48.30 ethane 1,2 diol 102 20.37 52.43 glycerol 297 21.29 45.97 distilled water Alison Braybrook Page 7 4/5/2005 7 ...read more.

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