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Describe, in terms of photochemical smog, what is meant by primary pollutants and secondary pollutants in the atmosphere, and list the main primary and secondary produced as a result of motor vehicles.

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Introduction

Kevin Jenkins Chemistry Open Book Paper . Describe, in terms of photochemical smog, what is meant by primary pollutants and secondary pollutants in the atmosphere, and list the main primary and secondary produced as a result of motor vehicles. Primary pollutants are air pollutants which enter the earth's atmosphere directly, the two main pollutants that cause photochemical smog are oxides of nitrogen, (NOx), and volatile organic compounds created from fossil fuel combustion, these are usually hydrocarbons and they are called VOC's, (volatile organic compounds). Secondary pollutants are air pollutants formed by primary pollutants and sunlight reacting, the main secondary pollutants found in photochemical smog are ozone, O3, oxides of nitrogen, NOx, hydrogen peroxide, H2O2, peroxycetyl nitrate, PAN, and partially oxidised VOC's and HNO3. Photochemical smog's develop over industrial areas where there is a lot of primary pollutants emitted, an example of somewhere like this could be Bangkok, or Seattle, smog is a red-brownish shade which hovers just above just above the cities. * Describe how primary pollutants are formed in the combustion of the fuel in a coal-fired power station. ...read more.

Middle

* At the same (400 WORDS) time, some of the nitrogen dioxide can react with the volatile organic compounds to produce toxic chemicals such as PAN. * As the sun goes down, the production of ozone is halted. The ozone that remains in the atmosphere is then consumed by several different reactions. (http://royal.okanagan.bc.ca/mp...)- internet Also temperature rises can carry pollutants to a high level, but if there is a temperature inversion it can leave the pollutants close to the surface of the earth. Ozone occurs naturally at ground level at low concentrations, the sources for these are hydrocarbons and the odd few molecules that have come down from the stratosphere. Tropospheric ozone is formed when O2 reacts with O, in order for this to happen NO2 must be broken down into NO and O. The reaction in which NO2 is broken down uses UV-radiation. However, once the ozone is formed it can react with NO to form NO2 again: O3 + NO ? O2 + NO2 (http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/pns/...) - internet * Describe the chemistry of the processes chosen as BPEOs at Longannet for minimising sulphur dioxide and NOx emissions, and suggest why the Longannet management made those choices. ...read more.

Conclusion

I believe the managers at Longannet made these choices because they are the healthiest options for the enviroment, and to humans, it also produces cheap power. * Outline the part played by chemists in the research on photochemical smog formation. Research has showed that photochemical smog only develops over urban areas. Research has also been conducted to discover what pollutants are in the troposphere, (and that it is in the troposphere that reactions take place). Also what helps it to develop better, for example very clear and sunny days, (because of the UV-light). A lot of research has taken place in the lab, conducting experiments looking into the conditions it needs to develop, etc..., and also on rates of reaction. Sources http://royal.okanagan.bc.ca/mp...- webpage title: Photochemical smog, by Tracey Gow and Michael Pidwirny, October 17 1996. http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/pns/...- webpage title: Current Greenhouse Gas concentrations, by T.J Blasing and Sonja Jones, Revised and updated October 2002. Longannet: clean coal power?, adapted from Enviromental Pressure by Donald Miller, Chemistry Review, Volume 9, Number 4, March 2000. Photochemical smog: the killer on a summer's day, adapted from what is photochemical smog by Gwen and Mike Pilling, Chemistry Review, Volume 5, Number 5, May 1996. ...read more.

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