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Describe the structure of prokaryotic cells when compared to eukaryotic cells.

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Introduction

Describe the structure of prokaryotic cells when compared to eukaryotic cells. Prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells have many similarities and differences, they are evolutionarily related to each other and this can be seen in their structure. It is thought by biologists that the mitochondrion found in Eukaryotic cells has developed from a prokaryotic cell as their structure is somewhat similar. Within some prokaryotic cells structures known as mesosomes can be found. These mesosomes are ruffled membrane intruding into the cell, they look very similar to cristae found in mitochondria, and are both used for cellular respiration. This is important evidence that the two are descended from a common ancestor. ...read more.

Middle

Prokaryotes do have DNA, although it has no physical boundary holding it together, it can be found gathered in the central region of the cell. However, the shape of the DNA itself is different. Within Eukaryotes the DNA is linear whereas in prokaryotes it is circular and therefore has no ends. This shape means that the DNA found in prokaryotes cannot be organised into chromosomes, instead there is one circular DNA molecule and a varied assortment of smaller circlets. Since the prokaryotic cell is much smaller and less complex than the eukaryotic cell it requires fewer genes. Both prokaryotes and eukaryotes contain a huge number or ribosomes, although the ribosomes themselves differ in complexity. Ribosomes are made up of rRNA (or ribosomal RNA) ...read more.

Conclusion

Whilst the prokaryotic cell is small and lacks a great amount of space the Eukaryotic cell is huge. This allows the eukaryotic cell to contain a large, complex selection of different organelles within its cytoplasm. Around many of its organelles form their own membranes membranes, separating them from the plasma membrane, this means the eukaryotes can work to optimum efficiency by isolating functions to smaller chambers within the huge cell. In contrast the prokaryotic cell contains no membrane bound organelles independent of the plasma membrane. In conclusion, the prokaryotic cell is much more simple in its design than the eukaryotic cell as it does not have the space to for complexity. However, it is evident that the prokaryotic cell and eukaryotic cell are linked in many ways and have evolved together. ...read more.

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