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Determination of the Solubility of Calcium Hydroxide.

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Introduction

Determination of the Solubility of Calcium Hydroxide Apparatus 250 cm3 volumetric flask 25cm3 pipette Pipette pump Burette 250cm3 conical flask Small funnel Rubber bung White ceramic tile Burette clamp G clamp Lab stand Quantities to be used 25cm3 Hydrochloric acid solution @ 0.3moldm-3 225cm3 Distilled Water Excess Methyl Orange indicator Excess Calcium Hydroxide solution @ 0.015moldm-3 Excess distilled water (for washing glassware) Making the Hydrochloric acid solution The hydrochloric solution provided is of a very high concentration compared to the concentration of the calcium hydroxide. Because the ratio of moles of hydrochloric acid to calcium hydroxide is 2:1, the concentration of the hydrochloric acid must be about twice as much as the calcium hydroxide: Ca(OH)2(aq) + 2HCl(aq) --> CaCl2 + 2H2O No. of Moles 1 2 The hydrochloric acid provided is of very high concentration compared to the calcium hydroxide, and so this will cause a very high error. Diluting the hydrochloric acid will reduce the error, because more calcium hydroxide will be needed to be added to complete the titration, and so a lot of drops of lower concentration hydrochloric acid would yield a smaller error than a few drops of higher concentration hydrochloric acid. The hydrochloric solution will be diluted 10 times to reduce the concentration from 0.3moldm-3 to 0.03moldm-3. This new concentration will therefore be twice the concentration of the calcium hydroxide. 1. ...read more.

Middle

3. Clamp the burette to the lab stand, and clamp the lab stand to the table using the g clamp. 4. If the pipette has not been washed and primed, wash it out with distilled water. Then fill with the hydrochloric acid solution and empty. The pipette has now been primed. Pipette 25cm3 of the hydrochloric acid solution, made earlier, into a clean and dry conical flask. If the conical flask is not clean, wash it out with distilled water and allow to dry. 5. Add 3 drops of methyl orange indicator into the conical flask containing calcium hydroxide. Methyl orange indicator is to be used, because it is the suitable indicator when reacting a strong acid and a strong alkali. Hydrochloric acid is the strong acid in this case, and calcium hydroxide is the strong alkali in this experiment. Swirl the conical flask thoroughly to ensure the methyl orange indicator is completely mixed with the calcium hydroxide solution. Place this conical flask onto a white ceramic tile. 6. Place the burette over the conical flask so that the calcium hydroxide solution can be transferred into the conical flask. Record the volume of calcium hydroxide solution in the burette. 7. Open the burette and allow the calcium hydroxide solution to slowly drip into the hydrochloric acid solution. Whilst the calcium hydroxide is dripping into the sodium carbonate, constantly mix the hydrochloric acid so that the calcium hydroxide solution is completely mixing with the hydrochloric acid solution. ...read more.

Conclusion

This will ensure that if the calcium hydroxide spills, it will not spill into the eyes. This will reduce the risk of blindness Food and drink must not be eaten in the room, since a trace of either solution may be indirectly ingested, and could cause serious health hazards. You must also know the location of the eye wash and know how to use the eye wash in an emergency. This will reduce the chance of s serious injury in the case of an emergency. Explanation The plan will provide precise and reliable results if followed correctly. There is minimum risk of contamination, because all the glassware will be washed using distilled water. This will reduce risk of contamination because if the glassware has been used in previous experiments with different chemicals, they will be washed out. The burette and conical flask will also be primed to reduce contamination from other chemicals. Drops will be used to add the Calcium Hydroxide solution into the Hydrochloric acid solution. This will ensure accurate results because a drop is about 1cm3 and so when the colour if the indicator changes, there will be a maximum concurrent difference of 1cm3 and so accurate results will be achieved. When carbon dioxide is passed through calcium hydroxide, a fine precipitate is formed. This precipitate is calcium carbonate. Passing the calcium hydroxide through filter paper ensures that no precipitate is allowed into the burette, and so the titration can be carried out as accurately as possible. ...read more.

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