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Determine the concentration of sulphuric acid by acid-base titration.

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Introduction

Finding out how much acid there is in a solution Aim: To determine the concentration of sulphuric acid by acid-base titration. Introduction: A titration is a procedure used in analytical chemistry to determine the amount or concentration of a substance. Analytical chemistry involves the study of chemical substances usually by experiments. There are two branches of the analytical chemistry: 1- Quantitative chemical analysis: concerned with the determination of the quantitative composition of pure compounds, mixtures and solutions. 2- Qualitative chemical analysis: involves deducing what substances are present. Methods of quantitative analysis are: 1- Volumetric (titrimetric) analysis. 2- Gravimetric analysis 3- Mass spectrometry Volumetric analysis It is used for to find the concentration of solutions by a technique know as titration. There are various types of titrations: 1- A cid-base titration. 2- Conductimetric titration, 3- Potentiometric titration. The principles of titration involve peppitting a portion (know as an aliquot) of the solution of unknown concentration (the titrate) into a conical flask. The solution is then titrated by adding a measured increment of a standard solution is then burette until the reaction is just complete. The standard solution is the solution whose concentration is known. It is prepared by dissolving an accurately weighted amount of a substance in a known volume of liquid. ...read more.

Middle

Add anhydrous sodium carbonate over the mixture and leave to react. Add lots of cold water. Rinse the area of the spill several times with water. Methyl Orange Inhalation: Remove to fresh air. Get medical attention for any breathing difficulty. Ingestion: Induce vomiting immediately as directed by medical personnel. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Get medical attention. Skin Contact: Immediately flush skin with plenty of soap and water for at least 15 minutes. Remove contaminated clothing and shoes. Get medical attention. Wash clothing before reuse. Thoroughly clean shoes before reuse. Eye Contact: Immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, lifting lower and upper eyelids occasionally. Get medical attention immediately. In order to carry this experiment accurately working area must be organised with all apparatus and goggles must worn and experiment set out like this. A. Preparing the anhydrous sodium carbonate 1) Place a weighing bottle on the electronic balance. 2) Add approximately 2.65grams of anhydrous sodium carbonate. 3) Record the mass of anhydrous sodium carbonate and the weighting bottle. Weight of weighting bottle - sample of Na2CO3+weight of bottle = weight of Na2CO3 4) Tip the solid into 250cm3 beaker tapping the bottom of the bottle to remove the contents 5) Carefully, rinse the weighing bottle two or three times (it vital that the entire solid is transferred into the beaker). ...read more.

Conclusion

Although I had one anomalous result I can say that the rest of my results are up to a good degree of accuracy the reason been: I used small number of drops of indicator, methyl orange, because having any more then 4 drop will affect the results. 1) I made sure I used the same apparatus each time. 2) I made sure I used a white tile and paper through out the experiment. 3) When transferring sodium carbonate to the volumetric flask I made sure I wash the glass rod, beaker and filter funnel. 4) When I Opened the tap of the burette to let some solution run out I made sure that the bottom of the meniscus is exactly on the line. 5) I made all off my reading to 2 decimal places 6) After adding distilled water to the volumetric flask up to the graduation mark, I made sure that I invert it appropriately 20 times to make sure all the sodium carbonate has dissolved. My first and second results are extremely accurate and precise; however my third result was anomalous although I followed my method accurately. I think the third reading was inaccurate because of contamination, the reason been is because I didn't clean the conical flask probably, therefore some alkali was left over. Page 1 of 9 ...read more.

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