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# Determine the molar mass of butane.

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Introduction

MOLAR MASS OF BUTANE Name: Ingrid Foss Ballo Class: 2IBJ Team: Ingrid Foss Ballo and Maike Jule Sonnewald Petersen Date: Tuesday 30th of January, 2004 AIMS The purpose of this activity is to determine the molar mass of butane using gas from a butane lighter. The experiment depends on the fact that the molar volume of an ideal gas is 22,4L at standard temperature and pressure (0 ?C and 101,3 kPa). By measuring the volume occupied by a known mass of butane, and knowing that its molar volume is 22,4L at S.T.P., it is possible to calculate the molar mass of butane. METHODS AND TOOLS Equipment - Piece of glass tubing - approximately 24 cm long and with a diameter of approximately 25 mm, closed at one end (with markings for mL). - Container for water - Butane lighter - Restort stand, boss head and clamp - Thermometer (-10-100 ?C) Procedure We filled both the glass tubing and the container with water. Then we inverted the tubing and place the open end of it under the surface of the water in the water container, as shown in figure I: Then we clamped the glass tubing in position and measured the temperature of the laboratory. ...read more.

Middle

0, 001 g Temperature of laboratory: 22 ?C ? 0,1 ?C Volume of butane inside the glass tubing: 100 mL ? 0, 1 mL Vapour pressure of water at 22 ?C: 2,64 kPa (according to a table in "Chemistry Laboratory Manual") Weight of lighter after experiment: 24,503g ? 0,001 g (First measured value was 24,519 g ? 0,001 g, so it is obvious that the lighter at that time contained some water.) Measured atmospheric pressure: 1014,5 millibars ? 0,1 millibar. DATA PROCESSING AND PRESENTATION Calculating mass of butane released from the lighter: mbutane = initial weight of lighter - final weight of lighter mbutane = 24,734 g ? 0,001 g - 24,503 ? 0,001 g mbutane = 0, 231 g ? 0,001 g Calculating the partial pressure of the butane: This is done by subtracting the vapour pressure of water from the measured atmospheric pressure. Values of the vapour pressure of water was found in Appendix 4. Vapour pressure of water at 22 ?C: 2,64 kPa (according to a table in "Chemistry Laboratory Manual") ...read more.

Conclusion

By comparing to literature, we find that the molar mass of butane (C4H10) is 58,14. Our result was 52,8, which is quite good considering uncertainties. Possible errors is air bubbles inside the glass tubing which might have affected the volume of butane calculated. I know that there was some air bubbles, as this was very difficult to avoid. We might have gotten a better result if we had used a stopper in the one end of the glass tubing so it would have been easier to avoid air bubbles. Additional to this, there might also still have been some water left inside the lighter when reweighing it. We weighted it several times to get the best possible result. As we waited for some time, it was clearly shown on the weight that it had some water inside when we first weighted it. Our last result was better than the first one, but not perfect. Maybe it could have been an idea to allow the lighter to rest for about 24 hours to make sure it was perfectly dry. The difference between our result and the literary result would mainly be caused by uncertainties. ...read more.

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