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# Determining the concentration of a limewater solution. This procedure will require a titration of an unknown concentration of limewater using a precisely known concentration of hydrochloric acid

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Introduction

Determining the concentration of a limewater solution. This procedure will require a titration of an unknown concentration of limewater using a precisely known concentration of hydrochloric acid. Using equations the exact concentration of the limewater can be determined. This is useful as when an indicator such as phenolphthalein indicates the titration is complete, the known number of moles within the acid can be used to determine the concentration of the limewater. Equipment list: 50.0 ml Burette 1.00ml of HCl 2.00mol dm-3 250cm3 Limewater of approximately 1.00g dm-3 99.0ml Distilled water Phenolphthalein indicator 100ml Measuring cylinder 250ml Conical flask White tile Pipette Clamp Boss Stand Safety: In regards to safety when working with any hydrochloric acid, at 2M it is a classed as an irritant so gloves must be worn throughout. Also regardless of the concentration, lab goggles must be worn. Calcium hydroxide is also an irritant so gloves must be worn. Method: Firstly add 25.0ml of the sample limewater to a conical flask. ...read more.

Middle

(V con) = (M dil) (V dil) (2.00) (V con) = (0.02) (100) (2.00) (V con) = 2.00?2.00 (V con) = 1.00 I want 100ml as I will put 25.0ml in the conical flask each of the four times I carry out the experiment. So I will use 1.00ml in my dilution with 99.0ml of distilled water as this is not involved in the reaction it is ok. This is a ratio of 1:99. Equipment for dilution: Glass pipettes (100ml 10.0ml) Using a glass pipette add 100ml of distilled water to a measuring cylinder. Remove 1.00ml of distilled water using the smaller pipette. (Using two pipettes and removing 1.00ml is more accurate than using many decreasing in size pipettes to add the same volume.) Using the smaller glass pipette add 1.00ml of HCl to the measuring cylinder. Put a bung on and gently shake to mix. The dilution of the acid seems of no use but it means it is possible to increase the degree of accuracy of the test as each drop of HCl has a smaller and more measurable effect in the reaction. ...read more.

Conclusion

The first one was my roughest titration so possibly the least precise. The titration in this result possibly continued past the end point and more acid was going when the titration was already over. This is simply human error as I wasn't quite quick enough at stopping the acid from leaving the burette as I should have been. When doing my third titration I may have only put 4 drops in the flask because I thought I saw 2 drops go in, in one. This left the flask with less indicator and a slightly paler colour. This would have needed less acid to make the change in colour because the change would be less dramatic and happen easier. Apart from these errors my results were quite accurate because I did use the equipment I chose to use well. The glass pipettes are very accurate to a very fine margin of error. The burette is also a very precise piece of equipment. Overall my experiment worked well as I got a reasonable outcome and used all the equipment well, any mistakes I had made would have been lessened by the repetition of my experiment. ...read more.

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