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Determining the Concentration of Limewater Solution

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Determining the Concentration of Limewater Solution Aim The aim of this experiment is to find the concentration of 250 cm3 of limewater solution, which has been made such that it contains approximately 1g dm-3 of calcium hydroxide. I am required to design my own experiment and choose a range of appropriate equipment and apparatus. The indicator will be supplied to me. Also available is hydrochloric acid which has a concentration of exactly 2.00 mol dm-3, this concentration is too much though so it is necessary to dilute it. Apparatus & Chemicals The apparatus, equipment and chemicals that I will use are as follows: - 1) Pipette 25cm3 2) Volumetric flask 250cm3 3) Conical flask 250cm3 4) Burette 5) Funnel 6) Clamp and stand 7) Indicator (methyl orange) 8) Limewater (250cm3 with 1g dm-3 of calcium hydroxide) 9) Hydrochloric acid (concentration 2.00 mol dm-3) 10) Distilled water Risk Assessment When carrying out any experiment in a laboratory a lab coat must always be worn. 1. Chemical Hazards Name Hazard Precautions Hydrochloric Acid The HCL we are using is very dilute and therefore is not corrosive but is an irritant. ...read more.


This would require a dilution factor of 100. I will be making 500 cm3 of dilute hydrochloric acid. Accuracy To reduce any errors it is necessary to choose accurate and reliable equipment. That is why I have chosen the pipette, volumetric flask and burette. All of these instruments have an accuracy of 0.05%cm3, which is suitable for my experiment and should produce accurate and reliable results. In making my choice of indicator I also had to be very careful. The Limewater used will be a relatively weak base so it will be appropriate to use methyl orange as it has an end point on the ph scale between 8-5. Whereas phenolphthalein indicator has an end point much higher up in the ph scale. So if I were to use the phenolphthalein indicator then the end point (colour change) would be reached before the equivalence point (when the chemicals, acid-base break up). Implementing Safety is very important and it is necessary to follow safety procedures. It is important to wear eye protection when working with any acid. Also long hair should be tied back and as the chemicals used are corrosive it is important to take extra care while working around them. ...read more.


* Make sure the tap of the burette is closed (horizontal position). * Place a funnel at the top of the burette. * Pour the HCl through the funnel into the burette filling it just above the 00cm3 mark. * Place the beaker beneath the tap and open it (vertical position), till it fills up and passes through the 'dead' space beneath the tap. This process should rid the burette of any air bubbles. * Measure and record the reading of the meniscus of the HCl in the burette. * Remove the beaker and place the conical flask containing the limewater beneath the tap. (Position yourself in a comfortable manner so that your eyes are level with the conical flask). * Open the tap by turning it to its vertical position, keeping one hand on the tap ready to close it as soon as the colour change occurs, and the other hand continuously swirling the conical flask. * Close the tap as soon as the colour changes from light orange to pink, and read and record the volume of dilute hydrochloric acid used to neutralise 25.0 cm3 calcium hydroxide (limewater). 1In order to obtain consistent and reliable results it is necessary to have carry out the titration again and again until two concordant results are found. ...read more.

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