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Determining the Solubility of Calcium Hydroxide.

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Introduction

Determining the Solubility of Calcium Hydroxide By Osman Khan Lee 12 Apparatus 0.015mol dm-3 calcium hydroxide 0.3mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid Distilled water Methyl orange indicator 50cm3 burette 250cm3 volumetric flask Pipette and pipette filler Beaker Measuring cylinder Conical flask Clamp Stand Filter funnel Method 1. Using a measuring cylinder put 25cm3 of hydrochloric acid into a 100cm3. Using some distilled water rinse out the measuring cylinder and pour the contents into the same beaker containing hydrochloric acid. 2. Next transfer the contents of this beaker to a 250cm3 volumetric flask. It may be necessary to use a volumetric flask, and if so rinse this out once it has been used. Again rinse out the beaker using distilled water and pour the contents into the volumetric flask. 3. Once the hydrochloric acid / water solution is in the volumetric flask, fill the volumetric flask with distilled water until you are about 2-4cm3 from the graduation mark. At this point add water to the volumetric flask using a pipette until the bottom of the meniscus is just touching the graduation mark. Stopper the flask and invert it several times to mix the contents together. 4. Now, using the pipette and pipette filler, withdraw 25cm3 of the hydrochloric acid/ water solution and place this into a conical flask. Once this is done add 3 drops of methyl orange indicator to the contents. 5. Next, rinse out the burette using distilled water and then rinse it using calcium hydroxide. ...read more.

Middle

At higher concentrations it is corrosive Hydrochloric Acid May evolve toxic fumes in fire Doesn't apply to my experiment Irritant to eyes and skin Wear safety goggles as well as plastic or rubber gloves Methyl Orange Irritant to eyes and skin Wear safety goggles as well as plastic or rubber gloves Details of Sources 1. Salters Advanced Chemistry 2000- Worksheets Elements of Life 2.1 page 4 This was used to help me prepare a procedure for the titration 2. Salters Advanced Chemistry 2000- Worksheets Elements of Life 2.1 page 5 This was used to help me in developing a strategy for the equipment I will use in my titration, as they allow me to see how accurately results can be taken for pipette and volumetric flask. 3. http://www.chemistry-react.org/go/Tutorial/Tutorial_4428.html This was used to help me in developing a strategy and seeing accuracy of burette and other equipment 4. Handout Sheets referring to Health and Safety about: - Calcium Hydroxide - Hydrochloric Acid - Methyl Orange 5. Information Sheet on the use of indicators in Acid Alkali Titrations Enabled me to see what kind of indicator I will need to use for my experiment- Methyl Orange in my case Results Titration Rough 1 2 Initial Burette Reading (cm3) 1.00 1.00 0.00 Final Burette Reading (cm3) 25.45 28.20 27.10 Titre (cm3) 24.45 27.20 27.10 Average Titre (cm3) _______ 27.15 Analysis Ca(OH)2+ 2HCl CaCl2 + 2H2O Therefore number of moles of HCl = twice the number of moles of Ca(OH)2 Moles of HCl used = Concentration x Volume (mol) ...read more.

Conclusion

This is another human error which can give inaccurate results. Based on the data I think the experiment produced very reliable results, as I obtained two titrations within 0.1cm3 of each other. This therefore means the experimental instruments I used were very accurate, which can be seen by the percentage error calculations on the previous page. I obtained no anomalous results also, which demonstrates this. In order to improve the experiment I would use a pH meter to judge when the two solutions have neutralised. Doing this would enable me to clearly observe when the two have neutralised. This would be seen when the pH meter reads 7. I would therefore quickly add the calcium hydroxide until the pH was about 6, and then slowly add drops until the meter reads 7. At this point the solution would be exactly neutralised and I would eliminate the fact of having to observe the correct colour change. For this reason I would not go over or under the end-point of the experiment, and would therefore help me produce much more consistent results. My experiment would therefore be much more reliable, as well as the apparatus I used being more accurate. As well as this I would ensure that whilst reading the burette I would be doing this at eye level. This would ensure that I do not read a slightly higher or lower reading which would cause me to calculate an inaccurate concentration of the calcium hydroxide solution. In this way my experiment would produce more reliable results. ...read more.

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