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Diseases, ill health and the causes. Pathogens, drugs, genetic factors and diet.

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Introduction

Diseases Essay Pathogens are microbes that cause disease. They include bacteria, fungi and viruses. With any disease the symptoms are caused by the toxins made by the pathogens. Pathogens can be spread in the air, by touch, in food and water and by animals. Good hygiene along with using disinfectants and antiseptics are the best way of preventing the spread of disease. The body's own defences include the skin, blood and mucus lining the air passages of the lungs. When you catch a disease your body makes antibodies that give you immunity. Clinical trials are used in order to determine whether new drugs and treatments are safe and effective. A drug is a chemical that affects the way in which your nervous system works. Some drugs such as what you get from the pharmacy are beneficial, but many are harmful. Drugs are put into categories which are either depressants- drugs which slow down the nervous system and lengthen reaction time, stimulants- drugs which speed up the nervous system and shorten a persons reaction time , painkillers- help to relieve painful conditions and hallucinogens- drugs which produce sensations of false identity and distort what is seen and heard. ...read more.

Middle

Genetic engineering has made it possible to make large amounts of safer drugs more quickly and cheaply for example it is used to help diabetics in the following steps: the human gene that codes for the production of insulin is identified, special enzymes are used as chemical scissors, these cut out the insulin-making gene from the rest of the DNA, A circular piece of DNA called a plasmid is removed from a bacterium, the human insulin- making gene is put into the plasmid , the plasmid is put into a bacterium, the bacterium makes insulin, the bacteria multiply very rapidly and all the bacteria produced will have the insulin gene meaning lots of insulin will be made. Diseases decreasing have led to an increasing population over many years. The reasons for this is because improved agriculture means that most people are better fed, Public health has improved such as better water supplies and sanitation, medical care has improved such as people can be vaccinated against many diseases. ...read more.

Conclusion

Vitamin A is found in carrots, milk, butter and liver and if not in our diets it can cause sore eyes, poor night vision and unhealthy eyes. Vitamin B1 is found in yeast, cereals and beans and if not found in our diets it can cause retarded growth. Vitamin C is found in Citrus fruits and if not found in our diets can cause bleeding gum's which is called Scurvy which was very regular for pirates. Vitamin D is found in fish oil, milk, butter and made by body in sunlight and if not found in our diets it can cause a disease called rickets or soft bones. Iron is found in liver, meat and cocoa and if not found in our diets can cause anaemia disease. Calcium is found in milk and green vegetables and if not found in our diets can cause soft bones. Finally iodine which is found in fish and iodised salt tablets and if not found in our diet can cause the goitre disease which is an enlarged thyroid. Ultimately all these Vitamins and minerals are essential in order to prevent the various types of diseases. ?? ?? ?? ?? Page 1 ...read more.

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