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Does the concentration of hydrochloric acid affect its rate of reaction with calcium carbonate?

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Introduction

Chemistry Investigation: Does the concentration of hydrochloric acid affect its rate of reaction with calcium carbonate? Aim As stated in the title, I will investigate the differences in the rates of reaction between hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate if the concentration of the acid is varied. This is the equation for this reaction: 2HCl + CaCO3 CaCl2 + H2O + CO2 Hydrochloric acid + Calcium Carbonate Calcium chloride + Water + Carbon Dioxide Possible Variables that could be used The variables that may have an affect on this experiment are: * Size of marble chip - the size of the marble chip will affect our experiment, because this dictates the surface area. The larger the surface area, the more acid that will be in contact with the hydrochloric acid and able to react. * Concentration of hydrochloric acid - this is the proportion of hydrochloric acid in the solution. * Volume of acid - this will be the amount of hydrochloric acid that will be reacted with the marble chips. * Catalysts - weakening bonds increases the rate of reaction by lowering activation energy. A catalyst will not be used in this reaction, however. ...read more.

Middle

This should make a graph of the reaction curved as the reaction rate slows down. The increase in the concentration should be directly proportional to the increase of the reaction rate at a given time. This is because by doubling the number of hydrochloric acid molecules present, the chance of a collision should be doubled, as there is now twice the possibility of a collision-taking place. Activation energy should not be changed in this experiment though as the same amount energy will be required to break the bonds. This is because each particle has the same amount of energy, and the only reason the reaction is faster, is because there are more particles. This means activation energy will not have an effect on this experiment. Method Procedure 1. Attach a delivery tube to a conical flask. 2. Fill a tub with water to produce a water bath. 3. Measure out 5g of calcium carbonate on a piece of paper on some electronic scales. 4. Measure out 50cm� of hydrochloric acid solution in a measuring cylinder. 5. Fill a 100cm�-measuring cylinder with water and put it upside down on top of a beehive jar in the water bath so that none of the water inside the cylinder escapes. ...read more.

Conclusion

It could not be fully determined whether the increase in concentration would increase the rate of reaction whether we continued this experiment with much larger figures. This could be found out by extending the range of concentrations that could be reacted with calcium carbonate. This experiment would have to be conducted very carefully as hydrochloric acid at high concentration can be very dangerous, and the fact that a lot more time and preparation would have needed to be taken to maintain the levels of safety. The method showed the relationship between the concentration and the rate of reaction, but there was a slight margin of error because turning the cylinder upside was such a delicate operation, that it was very difficult not to lose some water. To solve this problem we could use a gas syringe, but the difficulty with this is that we could not test the higher volumes of gas, which would mean the range of results would be lower. This would lead to us withdrawing a less formulaic pattern. The experiments were fair tests but there was a margin of error because the scale with which we recorded our results was not precise enough (to 1 cm3), and the values of the controlled variables were not the exact amounts, thus giving us false results and misinterpreted formulae. ...read more.

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