• Join over 1.2 million students every month
• Accelerate your learning by 29%
• Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
1. 1
1
2. 2
2
3. 3
3
4. 4
4
5. 5
5
6. 6
6
7. 7
7
8. 8
8
9. 9
9
10. 10
10
11. 11
11
12. 12
12
13. 13
13
14. 14
14
15. 15
15

# Draw stress and strain graphs for the metal copper and the alloy constantan. Calculate the figures of young's modulus for copper and constantan. Discuss the physics involved.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

AS Physics Data Analysis coursework

This coursework assignment requires me analyse and evaluate data on copper and constantan given to me. It entails investigating the young’s modulus of the metal and alloy. Thus I will use many methods during to complete my investigation.

Aims:

1. To draw stress and strain graphs for the metal copper and the alloy constantan
2. To calculate the figures of young’s modulus for copper and constantan
3. To discuss the physics involved

Plan:

In this investigation I have received results for extension of copper and constantan for certain forces applied to it, for which I will analyse and calculate the young’s modulus. The results I have been given are forces applied to copper and constantan, three sets of results for the metal and alloy and this can be used by averaging data to give more accurate results thus these results given to me will be used to create graphs, calculate young’s modulus and analyse data for both metals so I can complete my investigation.

I will need to draw a force and extension graph for both copper and constantan, the extension shown will be the averaged value for each metal. I will also calculate the stress and strain values and plot this on a graph for both copper and constantan, I will plot these on the same graph and analyse the graph, hence I can find any patterns from the data and this will require me to draw my graphs accurately so I can correctly analyse the results to make judgements and conclusions.

I will use Microsoft Excel spreadsheet program to make tables of data, with the data I have been given. I will be using formulas to calculate average extension, stress, strain and young’s modulus for copper and constantan.

Middle

1.000E-03

1.000E-03

2.000E-03

1.33E-03

3.720E+07

6.35E-04

5.86E+10

6

3.000E-03

2.000E-03

3.000E-03

2.67E-03

5.580E+07

1.27E-03

4.39E+10

8

4.000E-03

3.000E-03

3.000E-03

3.33E-03

7.440E+07

1.59E-03

4.69E+10

10

5.000E-03

4.000E-03

4.000E-03

4.33E-03

9.301E+07

2.06E-03

4.51E+10

12

6.000E-03

5.000E-03

5.000E-03

5.33E-03

1.116E+08

2.54E-03

4.39E+10

14

7.000E-03

5.000E-03

5.000E-03

5.67E-03

1.302E+08

2.70E-03

4.83E+10

16

9.000E-03

6.000E-03

6.000E-03

7.00E-03

1.488E+08

3.33E-03

4.46E+10

18

1.100E-02

7.000E-03

1.000E-02

9.33E-03

1.674E+08

4.44E-03

3.77E+10

20

1.600E-02

1.000E-02

1.200E-02

1.27E-02

1.860E+08

6.03E-03

3.08E+10

22

2.200E-02

1.500E-02

4.500E-02

2.73E-02

2.046E+08

1.30E-02

1.57E+10

24

9.600E-02

3.200E-02

1.400E-01

8.93E-02

2.232E+08

4.25E-02

5.25E+09

26

BROKE

4.300E-02

BROKE

4.300E-02

2.418E+08

2.05E-02

1.18E+10

28

BROKE

BROKE

BROKE

BROKE

BROKE

BROKE

BROKE

Table 1

 CONSTANTAN Force (N) Extension (m) Extension (m) Extension (m) Average Extension (m) Stress (Pa) F/A Strain (Ratio) E/L Young's Modulus 0 0 0 0 0.00E+00 0.00E+00 0.00E+00 0.00E+00 2 0 0 0 0.00E+00 2.08E+07 0.00E+00 0.00E+00 4 2.00E-03 1.00E-03 1.00E-03 1.33E-03 4.16E+07 6.35E-04 6.55E+10 6 3.00E-03 1.00E-03 1.00E-03 1.67E-03 6.24E+07 7.94E-04 7.86E+10 8 4.00E-03 2.00E-03 2.00E-03 2.67E-03 8.32E+07 1.27E-03 6.55E+10 10 4.00E-03 3.00E-03 3.00E-03 3.33E-03 1.04E+08 1.59E-03 6.55E+10 12 5.00E-03 3.00E-03 4.00E-03 4.00E-03 1.25E+08 1.90E-03 6.55E+10 14 5.00E-03 4.00E-03 5.00E-03 4.67E-03 1.46E+08 2.22E-03 6.55E+10 16 6.00E-03 4.00E-03 5.00E-03 5.00E-03 1.66E+08 2.38E-03 6.98E+10 18 8.00E-03 4.00E-03 5.00E-03 5.67E-03 1.87E+08 2.70E-03 6.93E+10 20 8.00E-03 4.00E-03 6.00E-03 6.00E-03 2.08E+08 2.86E-03 7.28E+10 22 8.00E-03 5.

Conclusion

I have concluded that my prediction was correct as this was shown by my calculations and can be seen in the graphs I have drawn that constantan has a higher young’s modulus than copper.

I will now evaluate the accuracy of the data given to me and calculations I have made myself. I have set the my percentage error to be 5%, so if the percentage error is above 5% then I believe this is not accurate enough for an A-level experiment.

 Percentage error in measurements % error=(Error in measure/measurement) x 100 Area of wireSmallest measurements: 0.005x10-3m (Micrometer) and 0.35x10-3m (smallest recorded measurement).     (0.005x10-3/0.35x10-3) x100= 1.43% errorThe error percentage maximum I set was 5%, I have worked out the error percentage of area of wire to be 1.43%, and therefore this is acceptable. Original LengthLength of wire taken as 2.1mThe error in measure of metre rule is 5mm (5x10-3m)    (0.005/2.1) x100= 0.238095238%= 0.24% errorThis error is acceptable as it is well below the 5% error maximum I set, so this was seen to be literally an error free measurement. ForceMass= 100g each, but 2N intervals in force, so 200g mass for each interval. The mass error is between 99-101g, so +/- 1g. As two were used then 1x2= +/-2g error.    (2/200) x100= 1% errorAs my error maximum was set to 5%, a 1% error for force is acceptable.

Bibliography

• http://www.york.ac.uk/depts/chem/course/studhand/solids.html- found out composition of copper and constantan. (7/10)
• http://www.azom.com/details.asp?ArticleID=60- information on copper alloys (5/10)
• AS physics text book: very useful, chapter 4-5 are very useful and contained lots of information on the physics theory of my investigation (9/10)
• AS-physics CD-ROM: provided guides on how to set out coursework and information on the experiment hat this coursework was based on. (8/10)
• AS Physics teacher: Miss Bottomly: Very helpful. Introduced coursework, hence this would not have been possible without teachers help. (10/10)

By, Kamlesh Vadukul (Heathland school) AS-Level Physics

Word count: 5153

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Electricity and Magnetism section.

## Found what you're looking for?

• Start learning 29% faster today
• 150,000+ documents available
• Just £6.99 a month

## Here's what a teacher thought of this essay

4 star(s)

This is a well structured and well written report.
1. The sources of information need to be indicated within the work itself.
2. The running commentary should be removed.
3. The conclusions show good practice.
4. The evaluation should suggest further research opportunities.
****

Marked by teacher Luke Smithen 13/08/2013

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
• Join over 1.2 million students every month
• Accelerate your learning by 29%
• Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

# Related GCSE Electricity and Magnetism essays

1. ## Investigating how the length of wire affects its resistance

3 star(s)

This is because increasing the length of a wire means that the electrons have a longer distance to move through, which increases the frequency of collisions with the atoms within, as well as with each other (the neighbouring electrons). In a longer wire of the same material, there will be more atoms within.

2. ## To investigate which fuel gives out the most energy when burnt. We are burning ...

Propanol-weight Temperature Start- 173.22 Start- 24�C End- 172.46 End- 39�C Burnt- 0.76 Rise- 15�C Propanol (RMM) = C3H7OH= 60 Energy released= 15 x 100 x 4.2 Moles = 0.76 � 60 = 0.0.01267 = 6300 Energy/mole = energy/moles = 6300�0.01267 = 497.24KJ/MOL 2.

1. ## How does the length of a wire affect its resistance

For example, in table 1 for the first current in 100cm, it was 1.03, which was not correct, as the resistance should have increased as the length of wire decreased. From these results I will now create a line graph from the average resistance.

2. ## An Experiment To Find the Resistivity of a Wire

Resistance is directly proportional to 1/Area. The trend in my graphs clearly shows this. There were errors in my graph of Resistance against 1/ cross sectional area. This may be as a result of different positions of the wire having different thickness and the length of the wires used may

1. ## How the Resistance of a Wire is affected by Cross-Sectional Area

and at SWG 28 the resistance is 2.19 ? and also on experiment two when the thickness is SWG 26 the resistance is 1.46 ?, and at SWG 28 the resistance is 2.12 ?. The results show that as cross-sectional area decreases the resistance of the wire increases.

2. ## Electromagnets - What factors affect strength of an electromagnet?

number of electron and aligned atoms increase, a greater magnetic field is generated, from the spinning of the electrons, making a stronger electromagnet. Similarly as the current flowing around the core is decreased, the number of aligned atoms decrease and weaker the magnetic field becomes, and the strength of the electromagnet is decreased.

1. ## A Resistance Investigation - Independent Variables

This was because the cutting of the wire would have compressed and reduced the diameter of the wire, which would in turn cause a greater resistance. We also didn't cut the wire because that would mean we were unable to reinvestigate any anomalous results.

2. ## Testing the strength of electromagnets

Equipment Green wire striped at both ends- The wire needs to be striped at both ends so that the electricity can flow through the wire easier without an insulator preventing the current flowing. This wire is to coil round the core Crocodile clips- To attach the connecting wires from the power pack to the coiling wire.

• Over 160,000 pieces
of student written work
• Annotated by
experienced teachers
• Ideas and feedback to