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driving safely

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Driving Safely 1) Thinking distance is the distance travelled between a driver seeing a danger and taking action to avoid it, such as putting their foot on the brake pedal to stop the car. (REF: Collins Science Additional PG-184-185) Thinking distance= speed x time Braking distance is the distance travelled before a car comes to a stop after the brakes have been applied. Braking distance increases as the speed of the car increases. (REF: Collins Science Additional PG-184-185) Braking distance= Work done by the brakes Force (Friction) Stopping distance is the distance your vehicle travels: * From the moment you realise you must brake * To the moment the vehicle stops (REF: The Highway Code) Stopping distance= Thinking distance + Braking distance Stopping distance depends on * How fast your going * Whether your travelling on the level, uphill or downhill * The weather and the state of the road * The conditions of your brakes and tyres * Your ability as a driver, especially your reaction times when applying the brakes (REF: DSA Driving the essential skills) 2a) Thinking time and therefore thinking distance may increase if a driver is: * Tired * Under the influence of alcohol or other drugs * Distracted or lacks concentration An increase in thinking distance makes an accident more likely. 2b) The braking distance may increase if: * The road is icy or wet * The car has poor brakes or bald tyres * The car is travelling fast An increase in braking distance makes an accident more likely. ...read more.


Hard continuous pressure is needed to activate anti lock brakes. The driver gets the maximum braking force without skidding and can still steer the car. The driver does not necessarily stop more quickly. * Traction control stops the wheels on a vehicle from spinning when it accelerates rapidly. It gives maximum grip and stability on the road during acceleration. * A Safety cage is a rigid frame that prevents the car from collapsing and cruising the occupants in a roll over crash * Crumple zones at the front and rear ends of the car keep damage away from the internal safety cage. They absorb energy when a vehicle stops because they change shape. * A seatbelt stretches and slows a person down more slowly. * An airbag inflates and prevents the driver and passengers from hitting their head on rigid areas of the vehicle in side impact collisions. It absorbs some of the persons kinetic energy by squashing up around them. Passive safety features indirectly increase the safety of a car. They help a driver to concentrate on the road and reduce driver tiredness. They include: * Electric windows open and close quickly at the push of a button leaving the driver to concentrate on driving * A Cruise control system accelerates to a fixed speed irrespective of the load in the vehicle or the gradient of the road. ...read more.


Flashing amber lights tell you there could be schoolchildren crossing ahead (REF: http://www.thinkroadsafety.gov.uk/arrivealive/trafficlights.htm) ROAD MARKINGS ACROSS THE ROAD Give way to traffic on the major road Stop at the STOP line ROAD MARKINGS AT A BOX JUNCTION Do not enter the box unless your exit road or lane is clear, except to turn right. ROAD MARKINGS ALONG THE ROAD Lane line Centre line Hazard warning line Do not cross double white lines Do not cross solid line if it is on your side Do not enter marked areas unless it is safe to do so Zebra and pelican crossings' zig-zag lines. Vehicles must not overtake, wait or park in the zig-zag areas. Pedestrians should not cross zig-zag areas. They should always use the crossing. Keep school entrance clear. REF:HTTP://WWW.THINKROADSAFETY.GOV.UK/ARRIVEALIVE/MARKINGS.HTM ROAD SIGHNS SIGNS GIVING ORDERS Always obey traffic signals, road signs and the signals given by police officers, traffic wardens and school crossing patrols. Circular signs usually give orders, triangular signs give warnings and rectangular signs give information. These signs are mostly circular Those with blue circles usually tell you what you must do. Keep left Turn left ahead Ahead only Mini roundabout (give way to traffic from the right) Signs with red circles usually tell you not to do something No cycling No right turn No entry for vehicles No motor vehicles No pedestrians No vehicles Stop and give way Give way to traffic on major road REF: http://www.thinkroadsafety.gov.uk/arrivealive/roadsigns.htm ...read more.

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