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Effect of increasing charge on mass of copper deposited during electrolysis.

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Introduction

Effect of increasing charge on mass of copper deposited during electrolysis Aim: It is known that by passing a constant electric current through an aqueous copper sulphate solution that the passage of ions through this solution results in copper atoms being dissolved into the solution from the anode while positive copper ions (cations) are being discharged at the cathode. The experiment I will carry out is aimed to monitor the quantity of Copper (Cu) metal deposited during the electrolysis of Copper Sulphate solution (CuSo4) using Copper electrodes, when certain variables were changed. Plan Diagram Method My apparatus for this experiment will be: * A Power Pack * 2 Copper electrodes * An ammeter * Wire, with clips * A beaker I will pour the Copper Sulphate solution into a small beaker. I will then weigh the electrodes and record their masses. I will then place the electrodes into the beaker containing Copper Sulphate solution. I will then connect the electrodes to the power pack and the ammeter. ...read more.

Middle

of coulombs of electricity passed" Faraday's Second Law of electrolysis states that: "The mass of an element deposited by one Faraday of electricity is equal to the atomic mass in grams of the element divided by the number of electrons required to discharge one ion of the element." Another piece of scientific theory we can use to support our predictions is: At the anode (+): Cu (r) Cu2+ + 2e- At the cathode (-): Cu2+ + 2e- (r) Cu The copper at the anode releases copper ions and electrons, which float in the solution towards the cathode, where the copper ions and electrons deposit copper onto the cathode. Results Charge (Coulombs) Mass of Cathode (g) Mass of Copper deposited (g) Time (mins) 0 121.66 0 5 300 121.76 .1 10 600 121.87 .21 15 900 121.97 .31 20 1200 122.08 .42 25 1500 122.18 .52 30 (Graph is attached to the Back of this booklet) Analysis The results obtained support the prediction that the longer the current is left to flow; the more Copper metal is deposited on the cathode. ...read more.

Conclusion

At the anode (+): Cu -2e = Cu2+ At the Cathode (-): Cu2+ + 2e = Cu Evaluation Although this was a successful experiment, there were some factors of the experiment, which could have been improved to make it even more successful. One of these factors could have been the electrodes, which were quite dirty and obviously still had irremovable substances from previous experiments still attached to them. If this experiment were to be repeated for a second time, in need of greater accuracy, it would be imperative to have a new pair of electrodes, which have never been used before. Another improvement could have been in the drying technique itself. The solution I used to evaporate the excess Copper Sulphate solution may have remained on the electrode during the weighing which would increase the weight making the experiment less accurate. This could be improved by first cleaning the electrode with distilled water, dipping them in propanone then placing them next to an electric heater to evaporate the excess propanone. To improve the accuracy of this experiment, it could be repeated many times to produce a more accurate average result. ...read more.

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