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Effects of Exercise

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Introduction

Effects of Exercise Trial Analysis and Evaluation Hypothesis Generally the fitter the person the shorter the heart rate recovery period since a fit person has a larger stroke volume and should therefore clear their oxygen debt more quickly after exercise than an unfit person. Effect of exercise on cardiovascular and respiratory systems When exercising or competing in sports, the body undertakes a number of changes. You breathe heavier and faster, your heart beats faster, your muscles hurt and you sweat. These are all normal responses to exercise whether you work out regularly or only once in a while or whether you are a trained athlete.. The body has an incredibly complex set of processes to meet the demands of working muscles. Every system in the body is involved. In my trial analysis I will look at how the body responds to strenuous exercise -- how muscles, blood circulation, breathing and body heat are affected. Your Body's Response to Exercise Any type of exercise uses muscles. For example, running, swimming, weightlifting all use different muscle groups to generate motion. In running and swimming, muscles are working to accelerate the body and keep it moving. Exercise means muscle activity! When you use muscles, they begin to make demands on the rest of the body. In strenuous exercise, nearly every system in the body either focuses its efforts on helping the muscles do their work, or it shuts down. For example, your heart beats faster during strenuous exercise so that it can pump more blood to the muscles, and your stomach shuts down during strenuous exercise so that it does not waste energy that the muscles can use. ...read more.

Middle

This helps increase the delivery of oxygenated blood to working muscle further. The heart gets a workout during exercise too, and its job is to get more blood out to the body's hard-working muscles. The heart's blood flow increases by about four or five times from that of its resting state. The body does this by increasing the rate of your heartbeat and the amount of blood that comes through the heart and goes out to the rest of the body. The rate of blood pumped by the heart (cardiac output) is a product of the rate at which the heart beats (heart rate) and the volume of blood that the heart ejects with each beat (stroke volume). In a resting heart, the cardiac output is about 5 litres a minute. As you begin to exercise, sympathetic nerves stimulate the heart to beat with more force and faster. Also, the sympathetic nerve stimulation to the veins causes them to constrict. This, along with more blood being returned from the working muscles, increases the amount of blood returned to the heart (venous return). The increased venous return helps to increase the stroke volume by about 30 to 40 percent. When the heart is pumping at full force, the cardiac output is about 20-25 litres per minute. The lungs and the rest of your respiratory system need to provide more oxygen for the blood. The rate and depth of breathing will increase because of these events: Sympathetic nerves stimulate the respiratory muscles to increase the rate of breathing. ...read more.

Conclusion

Although I believe that my experiment produced fairly valid results, I am not sure that my experiment was particularly accurate. For instance, I cannot be sure that the step-up exercise was done at the same rate throughout the experiment. Also, I am not sure that the 30-second intervals were kept exactly to this timing. If I were doing this experiment again I would have to look closely at the method of exercise I used. I think that exercising on a piece of equipment like a running machine would produce more accurate results because I would be able to guarantee that the exercise remained constant throughout this experiment. Finally, a 'pulse-meter' might have helped the experiment to be more accurate. This is simply strapped round the chest of the exercise and it measures your current heart rate. I believe that this would produce a more accurate heart rate. The graph tells me that the heart recovery rate for fit people is a lot lower than unfit people. This is because during the exercise, anaerobic respiration begins to take place therefore the body has to pay back that oxygen back when it is resting. When exercise is complete the body's heart rate does not immediately return to the normal resting pulse rate. This is because of the pay back the body has to complete first. After two minutes after the exercise is complete the decrease rate then begins to gradually fall as the pay back becomes complete. I have some anomalous results, for example, there is a result for the heart recovery rate for an 'unfit' person (circled on graph) which doesn't quite match with the others. Mariam Kalsoom ...read more.

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