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Energy in Chemistry The Atmosphere and Oceans

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CD2 Energy in Chemistry The Atmosphere and Oceans The atmosphere is a cocktail of gases . The exact amounts of each gas vary as the amount of water vapour is variable. Name of Gas Amount in air % Nitrogen Oxygen Argon 78 21 1 The amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is tiny (0.01%). The amounts of carbon dioxide and oxygen gas are balanced and stay the same. Photosynthesis in plants converts carbon dioxide into oxygen. Breathing and burning convert oxygen into carbon dioxide. Burning a lot of fossil fuels destroys the balance by putting a lot of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. This traps the sun's rays and will not allow them to escape, this is called the greenhouse effect. ...read more.


Oil becomes trapped in pockets of rock that will not allow it to escape called non-permeable rocks. Oil is a non- renewable fuel because it takes a very long time to form and it is being used faster than it is formed , it will eventually run out. Oil is made up of many different substances called hydrocarbons . All hydrocarbons are made up of the elements hydrogen and carbon. They are different because there are many different lengths of carbon chain in the molecules that make up the hydrocarbons. Crude oil is split up into many useful parts, called fractions, by fractional distillation. Butane and light gases out Fractionating Column 400C Petrol out 1750C Kerosene out 2500C Diesel out Crude oil in 4000C Fractional Distillation The fractions can be separated because they have different boiling points. ...read more.


This is why heaters must be regularly cleaned to avoid carbon monoxide being made. Energy Changes If when two chemicals react the temperature goes up then energy has been released and this is called an exothermic reaction . If when two chemicals react the temperature falls then energy has been taken in and this is called an endothermic reaction. If two different metals are placed in a solution which conducts electricity (an electrolyte) then electricity is made. Eg if rods of magnesium and copper are put in lemon juice then electricity is made. Energy is measured in Joules (J) or kilojoules (KJ). 1000J=1KJ To measure how much energy is made by burning a fuel it can be burnt under a measured amount of water and the change in the waters temperature is measured . Energy given out = Amount of water X 4.2 X temperature change of water (J) (ml) (degrees C) ...read more.

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