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Examine the root, stem and leaf tissue layers of monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants.

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Introduction

Introduction Angiosperms, the flowering plants, are the most highly evolved plants and the most dominant in present times. The cells of angiosperms are prearranged into different tissues and organs (Curtis et al 1989). The three main organs of flowering plants are roots, stems, and leaves. All the flowering plants are basically divided into two major groups or classes, the Dicots and the Monocots based on a variety of the structural appearance. Most of these features can be identified with the naked eye including, the number of seed leaves, root system, appearance of vascular bundles in stems, vein arrangement in the leaves and the number of floral parts (Blake et al 2001). While monocots and dicots are composed of the same tissues (ground, vascular and dermal tissues) the arrangement of these tissues differs (Curtis et al 1989). The internal structure of the angiosperm root is comparatively simple (Curtis et al 1989). In dicots and most monocots, the three tissue systems (dermal, ground and vascular) are arranged in three layers: the epidermis, the cortex, and the vascular cylinder (Curtis et al 1989). The epidermis, which covers the entire surface of the root, absorbs water and minerals from the soil and protects the internal tissues (Curtis et al 1989). The epidermal cells of the root are characterized by fine, tubular outgrowths, known as root hairs (Curtis et al 1989). ...read more.

Middle

* Detailed drawings of the tissues were drawn. * The following structures were labelled: o Epidermis o Cuticle o Phloem Part C: Leaf Cross-section * The slides containing monocot and dicot stem cross-sections were examined * Detailed drawings of the tissues were drawn. * The following structures were labelled: o Epidermis o Palisade parenchyma o Spongy parenchyma o Stomata Part D: A section of a living leaf * A section of a living leaf was examined and observed for any evidence of the presence of the stomata, the guard cells and chloroplasts. A detailed drawing was drawn. Discussion questions: 1. The roots of a plant absorb water and minerals from the soil and pass them upward through xylem and phloem to the stem and leaves (Blake et al 2001). They are also responsible for storing the plant's organic nutrients such as starch, which are passed downward from the leaves through the phloem . Also, roots anchor the plant in the soil (Blake et al 2001). 2. The tap root is a single thick vertical root from which smaller, secondary roots extend (Blake et al 2001). It is the primary root that follows the downward line of the plant's stem, often deeply into the ground. A tap root can penetrate deeper into the soil so that it gets the water it needs in the harsh environments and also it makes the plant hard to pull from the ground (Curtis et al 1989). ...read more.

Conclusion

Conclusion: The root, stem, and leaf cells of monocots and dicots were studied in this experiment. Distinct differences were observed between monocot and dicot root, leaf, and stem cells in this experiment. It was found that monocots had no pattern in the placement of vascular tissues but dicots had a circular or cross shaped patterns. Error Analysis The margins for errors in this experiment were very low because the slides were pre-prepared and were labeled correctly. The samples were all clearly visible. There is a possible error which is that some cells were pretty similar that it was hard to distinguish between them. So, there could be some errors in labeling the cells that were drawn. Another possible error that could have occurred is when calculating the size of the specimen or in its magnification. Application The information learned in this experiment can be used when distinguishing between monocots and dicots in the future. For example, a farmer can examine the leaves of a plant and decide whether the plant is monocot or dicot, which may help him to choose the type of fertilizers to use or the type of plant that will give him maximum produce. Also, it will be useful to know the differences between monocots and dicots, when planting trees since monocots tend to have weak herbaceous stems. ...read more.

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