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EXERCISES IN OBSERVATION, RECORDING OBSERVATIONS AND WRITING FORMULAE AND EQUATIONS.

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Introduction

EXERCISES IN OBSERVATION, RECORDING OBSERVATIONS AND WRITING FORMULAE AND EQUATIONS. 1) REACTION BETWEEN A CARBONATE AND AN ACID 1. Measure about 1cm of sodium carbonate in a test tube and add the same amount of dilute hydrochloric acid. 2. Using a clean pipette, withdraw a sample of gas and bubble it through some lime - water in a clean test tube. If there is a white precipitate then the gas produced was carbon dioxide. 3. Dispose of the contents down the sink using plenty of water. 2) REACTION BETWEEN A METAL AND A DILUTE ACID 1. Take a few pieces of magnesium ribbon, place in a test tube and add approximately 2cm of dilute hydrochloric acid. 2. Hold your thumb over the top of the test tube until you can feel the pressure of the gas pushing against your thumb. Remove you're thumb and hold a lighted splint to the mouth of the test tube. A small explosion confirms that the gas produced is Hydrogen. 3. When there is no solid left dispose of solution in a sink with plenty of running water. 3) REACTION BETWEEN A CHLORIDE AND CONCENTRATED SULPHURIC ACID. 1. Measure a small amount of sodium chloride in a test tube add a few drops of concentrated sulphuric acid. ...read more.

Middle

3. Leave the test tube to cool and then add water from the tap. 7) ACTION OF HEAT ON LEAD (II) NITRATE 1. Measure approximately 1 cm of lead (II) nitrate in a test tube and heat. Be careful as the crystals may spit out of the test tube. 2. Two gases are produced. Confirm on of them is oxygen by holding a glowing splint inside the mouth of the test tube. If it relights, oxygen has been produced. 3. The other is brown. Confirm that it is acidic (nitrogen oxide) by holding a piece of moist universal indicator paper. 4. Put the test tube back in the fume cupboard in a test tube rack. 8) REACTION BETWEEN A SULPHITE AND A DILUTE ACID 1. Measure approximately 1 cm if sodium sulphite in a test tube and add approximately the same amount of dilute hydrochloric acid. Warm the test tube. 2. Hold some universal indicator paper over the mouth of the test tube. It should turn red. Put two drops of potassium dichromate solution onto a strip of filter paper as well as a drop of dilute sulphuric acid. Hold the paper over the mouth of the tube. Note that the orange potassium dichromate turns green. 3. Put the test tube in a rack in the fume cupboard. ...read more.

Conclusion

+ H20 (aq) 5) REACTION BETWEEN MANGANESE (IV) OXIDE AND CONCENTRATED HYDROCHLORIC ACID. Reactants: Manganese (IV) oxide (MnO2) = black solid Hydrochloric acid (HCl) = colourless solution Slight effervescence when cold but disappeared when warmed. Black solution turned the litmus paper red then bleached, suggesting chlorine was present. Black solution left in test tube. MnO2 + HCl ? Cl2 + MnCl2 +H2O MnO2 (s)+ 4HCl (aq) ? Cl2 (g) + MnCl2 (s) +2H2O (aq) 6) ACTION OF HEAT ON POTASSIUM NITRATE Reactants: Potassium Nitrate (KNO3) = White solid Heat Solid melted and liquid appeared to boil. Glowing splint added and the splint relit showing that Oxygen was present. KNO3 ? o2 + KNO2 2KNO3 (s) ? O2 (g) + 2KNO2 (s) 7) ACTION OF HEAT ON LEAD (II) NITRATE. Reactants: Lead (II) Nitrate (Pb (NO3)2 = White odourless solid Heat Oxygen produced as glowing splint relit. Second gas produced was acidic Nitrogen Dioxide. Pb(NO3)2 ? O2 + NO2 + PbO 2Pb(NO3)2 (s)? 2PbO + 4NO2 (g) + O2 (g) 8) REACTION BETWEEN A SULPHITE AND A DILUTE ACID. Reactants: Sodium Sulphite (Na2SO3) = White Grains Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) = Colourless solution When I added potassium dichromate solution and dilute sulphuric acid to the universal indicator paper it turned yellow/ orange. When put over the mouth of the test tube the universal indicator paper turned green. Na2SO3 + HCl ? SO2 + H20 +NaCl Na2SO3 (s) + 2HCl (aq) ? SO2 (g) + H20 (aq) + 2NaCl (s) ...read more.

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