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Experiment Plan. How much energy is transferred as heat when acids react with alkalis?

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´╗┐Chemistry: how much energy is transferred as heat when acids react with alkalis? Introduction In this investigation, I will be looking at the heat levels during the process of neutralisation, where you react and acid and an alkali together. What are acids? An acid is a chemical substance that neutralizes alkalis, dissolves some metals, and turns litmus red. Acids can come in each of the three states when they?re pure. They can be solids, such as citric acid, they can be liquids, for example sulphuric acids, or they can be like hydrochloric acid, which is a gas. To identify if a solution is acidic .You can use the pH scale, and some litmus paper. On a pH scale, an acid will be less than 7 ? the lower the pH number, the stronger the acid. To use it, you have to see what colour the paper turns, and then compare it against the scale. The darker the colour, the lower the pH number, and the lower the pH number, the stronger the acid. There are two different kinds of acids: organic and mineral acids. Organic acids are molecular and consist of carbon and oxygen atoms. Mineral acids come from inorganic/mineral sources. All pure acids are mineral acids. Throughout the group of acids, they all show some common properties. ...read more.


Endothermic reactions take in heat from the surrounding are, so the temperature falls. The energy changes in a reaction can be shown in an energy level diagram: You can see that in the first diagram, the products have more energy than the reactants did, so it has taken heat in from its surroundings, making it an endothermic reaction. The other diagram looks more complicated, but if you ignore the part about activation energy and the curve, you can see that the reactants had more energy than the products, so energy has been given out to the surroundings. An example of an exothermic reaction is burning, and an example of and endothermic reaction is electrolysis. Measuring energy changes Whenever a reaction takes place, so do a number of energy changes. They occur due to the bonds of the reactants breaking and the bonds of the products forming. When bonds are breaking, an endothermic energy change is occurring, because you have put the energy in. when bonds are forming, it?s an exothermic reaction because energy is given out when the bonds are made. We classify the whole reaction as endothermic or exothermic based on the net energy output. If the level of energy change in the products is positive, it?s an endothermic reaction, and if it?s negative, it?s an exothermic reaction. We can work out if a reaction is exothermic/endothermic by using this formula: Energy change (J) ...read more.


To control it, I will use 25cm3 of sodium hydroxide each time. * Amount of insulation ? keeping this the same is very important as if it is changed, it will allow a different amount of heat to escape, which will affect my results, ruining the experiment. To keep it the same, I will use the same insulating equipment each time, so that they have the same properties. * Temperature ? keeping this the same is important for two reasons. One, it will increase the rate of reaction, which could result in an increase in energy release, which would affect my results. The second reason is because I am measuring the temperature, so it will affect the reading on the thermometer if it increases/decreases. In order to keep the temperature the same, all of my experiments will be conducted at room temperature. * Concentration ? keeping this the same is crucial as the higher the concentration, the more particles in a fixed space. This will increase the number of collisions and bonds making/breaking, which will affect the energy release and therefore, my results. In order to prevent this, I will keep the concentration at 2M. * Equipment used ? this links with the insulation control variable. Different pieces of equipment will have different insulating properties, and I need to use the same things so that one set of results isn?t different to the other sets of results. All I need to do to control this is to use the same things every time. ...read more.

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