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Experiment to investigate how changing the concentration of hydrochloric acid affects the rate of its reaction with the reactant

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Experiment to investigate how changing the concentration of hydrochloric acid affects the rate of its reaction with the reactant Aim: Is to investigate how concentration of hydrochloric acid affects the rate of its reaction with the reactant. To decide which reactant I will use for my investigation, I will do preliminary experiments to decide this. Preliminary work I will be doing some different preliminary experiments. The preliminary will allow me to decide which reactants to use for my investigation and how much of that reactant to use in each experiment. Experiment 1a: Which reactant reacts best? 1. Display 3 beakers. In: * Beaker 1 place some chalk * Beaker 2 place some marble chips * Beaker 3 place some strips of magnesium 2. In each beaker pour some hydrochloric acid and observe the reaction. 3. Estimate the rate of the reaction on a scale of 0-5 (0= no reaction, 1= very slow, 2= slow, 3= medium, 4= fast, 5= very fast) I noted down the results, however, I realized that they are too inaccurate for me to base my decisions on them. Therefore, I will set a volume of hydrochloric acid to pour into the beakers and also I will weigh the reactants and make sure they all have the weight. Experiment 1b: Which reactant reacts best? 1. Display 3 beakers. In: * Beaker 1 place 2g of chalk * Beaker 2 place 2g of marble chips * Beaker 3 place 2g of strips of magnesium 2. In each beaker pour 40ml of hydrochloric acid and observe the reaction. 3. Estimate the rate of the reaction on a scale of 0-5 (0= no reaction, 1= very slow, 2= slow, 3= medium, 4= fast, 5= very fast) I noted my results and I will keep these because they are fairly accurate. However, I decided to extend my experiment and test marble chips and magnesium again but in a different form. ...read more.

Middle

However, I want to keep my experiment as fair as possible to get reliable results. * When I use the hydrochloric acid from the bottle I have to take off the lid and put it back on as quickly as possible. This has to be done for two reasons: 1. Hydrochloric acid evaporates 2. Hydrochloric acid decomposes when in contact with sunlight. * Weigh the chalk as accurately as possible because if the concentration of the chalk changes, then there would be another factor affecting the rate of reaction. Remember, I only want the concentration oh hydrochloric acid to affect the rate of reaction. If another factor affects the rate of reaction then my results will not allow me to see how the concentration of hydrochloric acid affects the rate of reaction. * Make sure that the cylinder of chalk used is new and is not cracked or dented. Otherwise, the surface area will affect the rate of reaction. As I have explained earlier, I don't want any other factor to affect the reaction. * When mixing the hydrochloric acid with dilute water, measure the amounts accurately in order to get the correct concentration. If I do not get the correct concentration my results will be incorrect. * When placing the cylinder of chalk into the beaker with hydrochloric acid, I have to do it as softly as possible without creating too much movement within the hydrochloric acid. * When the chalk is placed in the beaker I have to start the stopwatch as soon as possible because I have to start the time as soon as the reaction starts, therefore, I have to do this as quickly as possible for me to get accurate timings. * When doing the experiment I have to turn off the air conditioner. I have to do this for two reasons: 1. The AC affects the readings on the balance and random numbers appear. For me to get correct results I need the balance to function properly. 2. ...read more.

Conclusion

This would reduce the reaction surface of the chalk, lowering the rate of reaction. I should have used pure mineral chalk to avoid this. My results are based on the experiments I have done. My experiments were done following a detailed method I have written and I have also paid much attention to keeping the experiment a fair test. For each concentration, I have repeated the experiment three times and I calculated the average of the results I got for each concentration. The procedure that I have followed convinces me that my results are reliable. However, the fact that other factors were introduced into my experiment, means that my plan and method have to be more detailed in order to get even more accurate results. I would also consider doing more repetitions for each concentration to get an even more accurate average. To obtain more evidence to support my conclusion I could have used a wider range of substrate concentration to make sure there is no limit to the pattern I found in my analysis. Another thing I could have done, was to do more repeats for each concentration, this would make my results more accurate when calculating the average. To extend this investigation I should investigate reactions between hydrochloric acid and other reactants such as magnesium and sodium thiosulphate. This would allow me to see if the concentration does not only affect the reaction with chalk. The reaction between hydrochloric acid and magnesium would be: 2HCL+Mg MgCl2+H2 Hydrogen is released from the reaction. Therefore, I could use the same method to calculate the mass loss. However, if I use a different method, it would allow me to see if the results will be consistent. I would collect the hydrogen gas released in a syringe. I would measure how much hydrogen gas is released in a certain amount of time. This would allow me to calculate rate of reaction and see if concentration affects rate of reaction. ?? ?? ?? ?? Mohamed Maamir ...read more.

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