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Experiment to investigate how the change of Hydrochloric Acid concentration affects the rate of reaction with Marble Chips.

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Introduction

CHEMISTRY COURSEWORK Experiment to investigate how the change of Hydrochloric Acid concentration affects the rate of reaction with Marble Chips PLANNING Aim To find if changing the concentration of an acid will increase or decrease the rate of the reaction when marble is dissolved in hydrochloric acid. With the equation CaCO3 + 2HCl CaCl2 +H2O + CO2. The rate of the reaction affects how quickly the CO2 is produced. Background Knowledge The rate of reaction depends on how often and how hard the reacting particles collide with each other. Particles have to collide in order to react, and the have to collide hard enough as well. This is called the collision theory. When the temperature is increased the particles all move quicker. If they are moving quicker then they are going to have more collisions. Higher temperature also increases the energy of the collisions, because it makes all the particles move faster. Increasing the temperature only causes faster collisions. Reactions only happen if the particles collide with enough energy. At a higher temperature there will be more particles colliding with enough energy to make the reaction happen. This initial energy is known as the activation energy, and it is needed to break the initial bonds. If one of the reactants is a solid then breaking it up into smaller pieces will increase its surface area. This means the particles around it in the solution will have more area to work on so there will be more useful collisions. ...read more.

Middle

the reactants, either by speeding it up if the temperature rises because the particles move faster and travel a greater distance in a given time and so will be involved in more collisions. Or the temperature may slow the reaction down due to particles moving slower. OBTAINING ml Hcl : H20 T I M E (seconds) Exp. 1 30 60 90 120 150 180 50 : 0 15 38 60 82 89 95 40 : 10 11 26 44 63 81 91 30 : 20 10 22 35 51 69 85 25 : 25 4 9 15 22 30 39 15 : 35 3 5 7 10 14 19 10 : 40 0 1 1 1 1 1 Exp. 2 30 60 90 120 150 180 50 : 0 15 31 49 69 88 104 40 : 10 10 22 37 52 66 85 30 : 20 10 20 33 47 60 73 25 : 25 4 11 19 27 37 47 15 : 35 3 5 9 13 18 25 10 : 40 0 0 0 1 1 1 Exp. 3 30 60 90 120 150 180 50 : 0 14 35 52 74 88 97 40 : 10 12 23 40 56 73 87 30 : 20 9 19 34 49 65 77 25 : 25 5 10 17 24 35 43 15 : 35 2 4 8 13 15 23 10 : 40 0 1 1 1 1 2 AVERAGE of all results: 30 60 90 120 150 180 50 : 0 14.7 34.7 53.7 75.0 88.3 98.7 40 : 10 ...read more.

Conclusion

Just before the stop clock was started, the marble chips were thrown into the flask containing the concentrated hydrochloric acid, which was quickly closed. Therefore, the gas produced as soon as the chips hit the acid, would have been lost and not been appropriately measured. I would change that by having a sealed flask with both the acid and chips in and the flask being shaken about and reacted in a contained environment would signal the start of the experiment. If I was carrying out this experiment in a sealed, temperature controlled laboratory, I would maintain that the temperature was exactly the same each time as when I conducted the experiment, I was satisfied that each time the temperature was roughly room temperature (18�C) whereas I would ensure it was maintained each time the experiment was conducted. If I was to further this investigation into the rate of reaction I would do a more detailed version of this experiment. I would use larger quantities of substances (therefore a larger gas syringe) and record for a longer amount of time. I would enlist the help of technology to record the change of the gas syringe as it happens rather than ever 30 seconds, therefore plotting me the most accurate graph. Using this technique could help me investigate further how reaction rate changes within a reaction. I would change the reactants to produce different products and try different acids and different substances to investigate whether rate is similar or if it depends on the reactants involved and conditions. Within this, I could investigate using catalysts to speed up the reaction between hydrochloric acid and marble chips. ...read more.

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