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Experiment to investigate the effect of changing temperature on the rate of reaction between Sodium Thiosulphate and Dilute Hydrochloric Acid.

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Introduction

Experiment to Investigate the Effect of Changing Temperature on the Rate of reaction between Sodium Thiosulphate and Dilute Hydrochloric Acid. In this experiment, we shall be adding sodium thiosulphate to hydrochloric acid together and placing a drawn cross underneath and seeing how long the rate of reaction lasts until you cannot see the cross. Before the reaction starts, the liquids are both clear. When added they turn cloudy and milky with a yellow tinge to it, due to the sulphur released. Collision Theory The rate of reaction simply depends on how often and how hard the reacting particles collide with each other. The basic idea is that particles have to collide in order to react and they have to collide hard enough. > All chemicals are made from particles (atoms/molecules) > The particles have energy and can move > Chemical reactions only happen when particles collide > Some collisions are not successful. They must have enough energy to react Concentration - If the concentration of thiosulphate is increased, the rate of reaction is also increased. This is because in dilute acid, there are not many acid particles. This means there is a more remote chance of an acid particle, hitting a sodium thiosulphate particle. In a more concentrated acid, there are more acid particles. There is now more chance of an acid particle colliding with a sodium thiosulphate particle, and so more chance of a collision. Pressure - If the pressure is increased the particles in the gas are pushed closer. ...read more.

Middle

> The concentration of HCl will be the same each time, and the amount of thiosulphate will be the same. The independent variable is temperature. > During the heating stage of the experiment, a blue flame will be used throughout. > The same X will be used > Keep stirring the same > Consistency when starting the stop clock, start it at the sane time for each test All of these precautions will make my final results more reliable and avoid any abnormalities and anomalous results. The only change that will happen will be that the temperature of the solution will go up. Safety > A pair of goggles will be worn during the heating part of the experiment in order to protect the eyes. > When handling hot beakers and measuring cylinders a pair of tongs will be used. > A gauze and heatproof mat will be used while heating to avoid any damage to the equipment. > Extra care will be taken when using the substances as HCl is an acid and Sodium thiosulphate is poisonous. Results Temperature �C 20 30 40 50 60 70 Time taken for cross to disappear (s) 1st try 87 75 32.2 22.0 18.5 10.0 2nd try 90 74 34.7 20.3 17.2 9.8 3rd try 89 77 31.1 23.6 18.9 10.5 Average 88.7 75.3 32.7 22 18.2 10.1 Observations From my results, I notice that there is a considerable difference in the time for the cross to disappear from the lower temperatures to the higher temperatures. ...read more.

Conclusion

The particles were moving around with more energy; enough to break the energy barrier and for a reaction to occur as the temperature rose. I think the experiment was successful. I might have been able to improve my results by using more finely tuned equipment or repeating the experiment more times. I encountered 1 anomaly in my results, and this may be explained by the only drawback in the result accuracy: human error when operating the stopwatch. To improve the experiment I would need to have a very accurate stopwatch to time exactly how long the cross took to disappear so I could be really precise in my results. Ways in which I could extend this experiment are to use a different size of cross so that it doesn't disappear at such a low temperature this way I could carry on to see whether the collision theory is still right at higher temperatures. I feel I could do more to expand on the original question set by perhaps doing other experiments linking with this one like looking at for example: �Concentration, �Pressure, �A catalyst. I may have been able to study concentration; the more concentrated a product is the more particles there are to react in the same volume. Therefore, the products will collide more and react faster. Pressure will cause the particles to be forced closer together and therefore react faster. Finally, a catalyst will increase the rate of reaction by making the products react quicker while not reacting or breaking down itself. This can be very useful as it can be used over and over again. Chemistry ...read more.

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