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Experiment to investigate the effect of the concentration on the rate of reaction

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Introduction

Experiment to investigate the effect of the concentration on the rate of reaction Introduction: - Rate of reaction is the measure of the length of time taken for a reaction to occur. Factors that affect the rate of reaction are (This is the general view, check hypothesis):- i. Temperature of the Solution ii. Surface Area of the Solid iii. Concentration of the Solution Rate of reaction can be measured using several techniques. These involve measuring the rate of which the product is made or the rate at which a reaction is used up. The balanced chemical equation and word equation reaction between Hydrochloric Acid and Calcium Carbonate is shown below:- The reaction: - Hydrochloric + Calcium Carbon + Calcium + Water Acid Carbonate Dioxide Carbonate 2HCl (aq) + CaCO3 (s) CO2 (g) + CaCl2 (aq) + H2O (l) It can be seen from the equation that this reaction produces CO2 gas. Therefore, it is possible to measure the rate of reaction by measuring the volume of the gas produced within a certain length of time. Aim: - To investigate the effect of changing the concentration of the Hydrochloric Acid on the rate of reaction between Hydrochloric Acid and Calcium Carbonate in the form of marble chips. Hypothesis: - What was kept constant: - 1. Temperature of the Acid 2. Concentration of Hydrochloric Acid 3. The total weight of the Marble Chips 4. Volume of the Hydrochloric Acid Preliminary Experiment: - This involved determine the size of the marble chips (calcium carbonate) to use in the experiment. Equipment used to determine this: - Conical Flask (250 ml) Measuring Cylinder (250 ml) Gas Syringe (Fitted with bung) Hydrochloric Acid Concentrations (1M, 2M, 3M, 4M) Delivery Tube Marble Chips in grams (small, medium and large) Goggles Timer Water Bath + thermometer (25?C) Digital Balance Diagram 1: - Method: - 1. Wear goggles for safety 2. Temperature kept constant by placing Hydrochloric Acid in a water bath (this was constant at temperature 25�C) ...read more.

Middle

* To measure the time for the results in how much gas is given off to how long it takes to fill the Gas Syringe. This is to get the results and plot on a graph to show the accurate results * To measure how long it takes to give off 100 cm3 of CO2 gas. To get the results on the table and on the graph. Results for the main experiment: - Volume of CO2 (g) produced (cm3) from the reaction between different concentrations of Hydrochloric Acid and small sized marble chips. Volume of CO2 produced (cm3) Volume of CO2 produced (cm3) Time (sec) 1M 1st 1M 2nd 1M 3rd Average Time (sec) 2M 1st 2M 2nd 3M 3rd Average 5 6 4 5 5 5 12 10 7 11.7 10 8 6 7 7 10 35 30 22 29 15 11 10 10 10.3 15 50 45 35 43.3 20 14 15 14 14.3 20 74 58 56 62.6 25 18 21 17 18.6 25 100 80 77 85.6 30 23 28 22 24.6 30 99 86 92.5 35 26 36 17 29.6 35 100 100 40 35 44 34 37.6 45 38 55 37 43.3 50 42 63 43 49.3 55 47 75 50 57.3 60 58 86 58 67.3 65 68 100 66 78 70 75 75 75 75 78 85 81.5 80 85 91 88 Volume of CO2 produced (cm3) Volume of CO2 produced (cm3) Time (sec) 3M 1st 3M 2nd 3M 3rd Average Time (sec) 4M 1st 4M 2nd 4M 3rd Average 5 28 21 20 23 5 45 40 42 42.3 10 45 43 45 44.3 10 72 70 71 71 15 81 71 81 77.6 15 95 92 93 93.3 20 100 100 100 100 20 100 100 100 100 Interpretation of results 1. The volume of CO2 (g) produced (measured in cm3) increased with the increase of time (seconds) ...read more.

Conclusion

Further investigations: - 1. Look at actual mathematical relationship in further detail between Hydrochloric acid and the rate of reaction by using different concentrations. E.g. 0.25M & 0.5M 0.5M & 1M 2. Look at actual mathematical relationship between mass of CaCO3 and rate of reaction. (1 and 2 would allow rate of reaction to be formulated) 3. Look at the effect of the factors on rate e.g. surface area of chips or the addition of catalysts. Appendix for the main experiment: - Volume of CO2 (g) produced (cm3) from the reaction between different concentrations of Hydrochloric Acid and small sized marble chips. Volume of CO2 produced (cm3) Volume of CO2 produced (cm3) Time (sec) 1M 1st 1M 2nd 1M 3rd Average Time (sec) 2M 1st 2M 2nd 3M 3rd Average 5 6 4 5 (6+4+5)/3=5 5 12 10 7 (12+10+7)/3=11.7 10 8 6 7 (8+6+7)/3=7 10 35 30 22 (35+30+22)/3=29 15 11 10 10 (11+10+10)/3=10.3 15 50 45 35 (50+45+35)/3=43.3 20 14 15 14 (14+15+14)/3=14.3 20 74 58 56 (74+58+56)/3=62.6 25 18 21 17 (18+21+17)/3=18.6 25 100 80 77 (100+80+77)/3=85.6 30 23 28 22 (23+28+22)/3=24.6 30 99 86 (99+86)/2=92.5 35 26 36 17 (26+36+17)/3=29.6 35 100 100/1=100 40 35 44 34 (35+44+34)/3=37.6 45 38 55 37 (38+55+37)/3=43.3 50 42 63 43 (42+63+43)/3=49.3 55 47 75 50 (47+75+50)/3=57.3 60 58 86 58 (58+86+58)/3=67.3 65 68 100 66 (68+100+66)/3=78 70 75 75 (75+75)/2=75 75 78 85 (78+85)/3=81.5 80 85 91 (85+91)/3=88 Volume of CO2 produced (cm3) Volume of CO2 produced (cm3) Time (sec) 3M 1st 3M 2nd 3M 3rd Average Time (sec) 4M 1st 4M 2nd 4M 3rd Average 5 28 21 20 (28+21+20)/3=23 5 45 40 42 (45+40+42)/3=42.3 10 45 43 45 (45+43+45)/3=44.3 10 72 70 71 (72+70+71)/3=71 15 81 71 81 (81+71+81)/3=77.6 15 95 92 93 (95+92+93)/3=93.3 20 100 100 100 (100+100+100)/3=100 20 100 100 100 (100+100+100)/3=100 This is another way to show the results given but the Bar Graph would be complicated to look at. The Line Graph would be easier to retrieve data from Time against concentration. ...read more.

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