• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9
  10. 10
    10
  11. 11
    11
  12. 12
    12

Experiment to investigate the effect of the concentration on the rate of reaction

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Experiment to investigate the effect of the concentration on the rate of reaction Introduction: - Rate of reaction is the measure of the length of time taken for a reaction to occur. Factors that affect the rate of reaction are (This is the general view, check hypothesis):- i. Temperature of the Solution ii. Surface Area of the Solid iii. Concentration of the Solution Rate of reaction can be measured using several techniques. These involve measuring the rate of which the product is made or the rate at which a reaction is used up. The balanced chemical equation and word equation reaction between Hydrochloric Acid and Calcium Carbonate is shown below:- The reaction: - Hydrochloric + Calcium Carbon + Calcium + Water Acid Carbonate Dioxide Carbonate 2HCl (aq) + CaCO3 (s) CO2 (g) + CaCl2 (aq) + H2O (l) It can be seen from the equation that this reaction produces CO2 gas. Therefore, it is possible to measure the rate of reaction by measuring the volume of the gas produced within a certain length of time. Aim: - To investigate the effect of changing the concentration of the Hydrochloric Acid on the rate of reaction between Hydrochloric Acid and Calcium Carbonate in the form of marble chips. Hypothesis: - What was kept constant: - 1. Temperature of the Acid 2. Concentration of Hydrochloric Acid 3. The total weight of the Marble Chips 4. Volume of the Hydrochloric Acid Preliminary Experiment: - This involved determine the size of the marble chips (calcium carbonate) to use in the experiment. Equipment used to determine this: - Conical Flask (250 ml) Measuring Cylinder (250 ml) Gas Syringe (Fitted with bung) Hydrochloric Acid Concentrations (1M, 2M, 3M, 4M) Delivery Tube Marble Chips in grams (small, medium and large) Goggles Timer Water Bath + thermometer (25?C) Digital Balance Diagram 1: - Method: - 1. Wear goggles for safety 2. Temperature kept constant by placing Hydrochloric Acid in a water bath (this was constant at temperature 25�C) ...read more.

Middle

* To measure the time for the results in how much gas is given off to how long it takes to fill the Gas Syringe. This is to get the results and plot on a graph to show the accurate results * To measure how long it takes to give off 100 cm3 of CO2 gas. To get the results on the table and on the graph. Results for the main experiment: - Volume of CO2 (g) produced (cm3) from the reaction between different concentrations of Hydrochloric Acid and small sized marble chips. Volume of CO2 produced (cm3) Volume of CO2 produced (cm3) Time (sec) 1M 1st 1M 2nd 1M 3rd Average Time (sec) 2M 1st 2M 2nd 3M 3rd Average 5 6 4 5 5 5 12 10 7 11.7 10 8 6 7 7 10 35 30 22 29 15 11 10 10 10.3 15 50 45 35 43.3 20 14 15 14 14.3 20 74 58 56 62.6 25 18 21 17 18.6 25 100 80 77 85.6 30 23 28 22 24.6 30 99 86 92.5 35 26 36 17 29.6 35 100 100 40 35 44 34 37.6 45 38 55 37 43.3 50 42 63 43 49.3 55 47 75 50 57.3 60 58 86 58 67.3 65 68 100 66 78 70 75 75 75 75 78 85 81.5 80 85 91 88 Volume of CO2 produced (cm3) Volume of CO2 produced (cm3) Time (sec) 3M 1st 3M 2nd 3M 3rd Average Time (sec) 4M 1st 4M 2nd 4M 3rd Average 5 28 21 20 23 5 45 40 42 42.3 10 45 43 45 44.3 10 72 70 71 71 15 81 71 81 77.6 15 95 92 93 93.3 20 100 100 100 100 20 100 100 100 100 Interpretation of results 1. The volume of CO2 (g) produced (measured in cm3) increased with the increase of time (seconds) ...read more.

Conclusion

Further investigations: - 1. Look at actual mathematical relationship in further detail between Hydrochloric acid and the rate of reaction by using different concentrations. E.g. 0.25M & 0.5M 0.5M & 1M 2. Look at actual mathematical relationship between mass of CaCO3 and rate of reaction. (1 and 2 would allow rate of reaction to be formulated) 3. Look at the effect of the factors on rate e.g. surface area of chips or the addition of catalysts. Appendix for the main experiment: - Volume of CO2 (g) produced (cm3) from the reaction between different concentrations of Hydrochloric Acid and small sized marble chips. Volume of CO2 produced (cm3) Volume of CO2 produced (cm3) Time (sec) 1M 1st 1M 2nd 1M 3rd Average Time (sec) 2M 1st 2M 2nd 3M 3rd Average 5 6 4 5 (6+4+5)/3=5 5 12 10 7 (12+10+7)/3=11.7 10 8 6 7 (8+6+7)/3=7 10 35 30 22 (35+30+22)/3=29 15 11 10 10 (11+10+10)/3=10.3 15 50 45 35 (50+45+35)/3=43.3 20 14 15 14 (14+15+14)/3=14.3 20 74 58 56 (74+58+56)/3=62.6 25 18 21 17 (18+21+17)/3=18.6 25 100 80 77 (100+80+77)/3=85.6 30 23 28 22 (23+28+22)/3=24.6 30 99 86 (99+86)/2=92.5 35 26 36 17 (26+36+17)/3=29.6 35 100 100/1=100 40 35 44 34 (35+44+34)/3=37.6 45 38 55 37 (38+55+37)/3=43.3 50 42 63 43 (42+63+43)/3=49.3 55 47 75 50 (47+75+50)/3=57.3 60 58 86 58 (58+86+58)/3=67.3 65 68 100 66 (68+100+66)/3=78 70 75 75 (75+75)/2=75 75 78 85 (78+85)/3=81.5 80 85 91 (85+91)/3=88 Volume of CO2 produced (cm3) Volume of CO2 produced (cm3) Time (sec) 3M 1st 3M 2nd 3M 3rd Average Time (sec) 4M 1st 4M 2nd 4M 3rd Average 5 28 21 20 (28+21+20)/3=23 5 45 40 42 (45+40+42)/3=42.3 10 45 43 45 (45+43+45)/3=44.3 10 72 70 71 (72+70+71)/3=71 15 81 71 81 (81+71+81)/3=77.6 15 95 92 93 (95+92+93)/3=93.3 20 100 100 100 (100+100+100)/3=100 20 100 100 100 (100+100+100)/3=100 This is another way to show the results given but the Bar Graph would be complicated to look at. The Line Graph would be easier to retrieve data from Time against concentration. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Patterns of Behaviour section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Patterns of Behaviour essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Marble Chips and Hydrochloric Acid.

    4 star(s)

    Diagram of Circuit: The experiment will be set up as shown below. Analysis of Graph Average Rate of Reaction Analysis The graph showing the average rate of reaction confirms that our results are extremely accurate. Below is a table showing the results of the line of best fit.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    The Effect of Concentration on the Rate of Reaction between Hydrochloric Acid and Calcium ...

    3 star(s)

    Therefore because the small marble chips had a larger surface area, this meant there was more area for the particles to break the bonds, causing a faster reaction, therefore producing carbon dioxide as a product rapidly compared to the rate of reaction with the large marble chips.

  1. Marked by a teacher

    In this investigation we are going to measure the rate of reaction of marble ...

    3 star(s)

    50 56 55 55 54 50-56 180 55 62 59 61 59 55-62 200 59 67 64 66 64 59-67 220 62 71 69 70 68 62-71 240 65 76 73 74 72 65-76 260 67 78 76 77 75 67-78 280 70 82 81 79 78 70-82 300 71

  2. Investigation into the Effect Concentration has on Rate of Reaction.

    in a 2M solution of acid than in a 1M solution of acid. M = moles, the units that chemical substances are measured in. Moles let you calculate, among other things, masses of atoms, molecules or compounds; the mass of products from reactions; and of course the concentration of a solution.

  1. Investigate how concentration of hydrochloric acid (HCL) affects its reaction with calcium carbonate (CaCO3).

    Because the activation energy is lowered, the particles need less energy to react and the reaction rate increases. Inhibitors act in the opposite ways by increasing the amount of activation energy needed; this increases the rate of reaction. So that my experiment is as accurate as possible I will not add any catalysts or inhibitors to my experiment.

  2. Free essay

    Close Your Eyes

    He looked me up and down and smiled. "You look absolutely stunning. I, I can't believe how lucky I am to have you." This time it was me that smiled. He held out his hand and I took it. Our fingers linked and after shutting the front door we walked down the steps.

  1. How does the concentration of HCl affect the rate of reaction with CaCO3?

    The R² value is better than our preliminary R² value and really close to one (0.9889) meaning our results are really close to the line of best fit therefore our results are quite accurate because R² value was created to show us how close the results fit the line of

  2. An Investigation: Factors That Affect The Rate Of Reaction between Calcium carbonate and Hydrochloric ...

    then added the calcium chips as fast as possible to ensure the gas does not escape into the air, and not in the gas cylinder. As soon as we placed the bung inside the conical flask, we immediately started the stop watch and timed it up to 120 seconds.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work