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Experiment To Investigate the Effect On the Rate of Reaction Caused By Changes In Temperature.

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Introduction

Experiment to investigate the effect on the rate of reaction caused by changes in temperature. Plan The Aim of this experiment is to investigate the effect on the rate of reaction caused by changes in temperature. Safety Safety in this case includes: * The use of a heatproof mat * Sensible setup of equipment so that the desk is clear and everything is stable * Setting the bunsen to a safety flame while it is not in use * Wearing goggles while using hydrochloric acid and sodium thiosulphate * Wearing an apron to protect clothes Fair Test To make any experiment a fair test, I must make sure that I wash and dry the apparatus after every test so that the substances do not get contaminated. Also, because the solutions are both clear it would help to use different sizes of measuring cylinder and beaker so that the two liquids can be distinguished Equipment Theory The rate of reaction is the amount of a substance that takes part in a chemical reaction in a given time. The main thing that can change the rate of reactions is a catalyst because they provide an easier path to overcoming the activation energy. Concentration also affects reaction rate. ...read more.

Middle

* From my preliminary work I know that I need 40cm3 of liquid to cover the bulb of the thermometre, made up of 30cm3 of sodium thiosulphate and 10cm3 of hydrochloric acid. This is because it produces a faster reaction rate. * Measure out the quantities of the liquids, and poor the sodium thiosulphate into the beaker. * Add the hydrochloric acid and start the stopwatch. * When the black cross is obscured, stop the clock and record the time and the temperature. * Wash and dry all equipment to prevent contamination. * Repeat with a different concentration of sodium thiosulphate. They are: 10, 20, 25, 30, 40, and 50 g/dm3 * To make it a fair test, only the concentration of sodium thiosulphate should be changed. Method - Temperature * The apparatus should be set up as shown in the diagram. * From my preliminary work I know that I need 40cm3 of liquid to cover the bulb of the thermometer, made up of 30cm3 of sodium thiosulphate and 10cm3 of hydrochloric acid. This is because it produces a faster reaction rate and also because one quantity has to be greater than the other so that when it is heated, there is as small a temperature as possible when the cooler solution is added. ...read more.

Conclusion

I recorded a suitable range of values in both experiments in order to plot graphs and repeated each experiment and took the average to help accuracy. However, there was room for improvement in many areas: Firstly, the end of the reaction was determined only my judgement, which may have varied. To improve this, a light meter could be used to indicate when a certain amount of sulphur had been produced, and this would be much more reliable than human judgement. Secondly, accuracy in the temperature experiment was quite difficult, because doing repeats was difficult due to the problems with getting the water bath to the same temperature. Also, when the acid was added it would have cooled the reaction down. These problems could be overcome by using a large, thermostatically controlled water bath where all the glasswear could be kept at a constant temperature. Thirdly, the experiments can only be as accurate as the least accurate measuring device, which in this case, was the thermometer which cold only be read to half a degree. Therefore a more accurate thermometer would have allowed the investigation to be more precise. Further work Further work on this topic could include: * Using different quantities of sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid. * Investigating the affects of a catalyst on the reaction. * Repeating the experiment with the above improvements. * Changing the concentration of hydrochloric acid. ...read more.

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