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Experiment to investigate the rate of reactivity between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid

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Introduction

Experiment to investigate the rate of reactivity between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid Introduction: The experiment taking place is between calcium carbonate [CaCO3] and hydrochloric acid [HCl]. Calcium carbonate, also known as marble, is a metamorphic rock. This is a rock that is formed over long periods of time under high temperature and pressure. It is also formed when carbon dioxide reacts with calcium hydroxide to produce calcium carbonate. Calcium hydroxide + carbon dioxide calcium carbonate + Water Ca(OH)2(aq) + CO2(g) CaCO3(s) H2O(l) When an acid reacts with a carbonate the products are salt, water and carbon dioxide gas. When hydrochloric acid reacts with calcium carbonate the products are calcium chloride, water, and carbon dioxide. The formula for this reaction is: Hydrochloric acid + Calcium carbonate Calcium chloride + Water + Carbon dioxide HCl(aq) + CaCO3(s) CaCl2(aq) + H2O(l) CO2 As you can see above, in the reaction, the reactants are hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate, and the products are calcium chloride, a salt, water and carbon dioxide. The speed at which the reactants will create the products is called the rate of reaction. This follows a theory called the kinetic theory. This theory states that all states of matter contain particles, which are constantly moving/vibrating [kinetic energy]. In solids the particles are positioned close together which allows them to vibrate slightly. Between them are strong bonds that hold them together in a fixed place. The particles present in liquid have further distance between them; therefore the forces of attraction are less than in solids. The particles have weaker bonds that allow them to move. ...read more.

Middle

The emulsion that is used is similar for both colour and black and white film. The only difference is that the colour film contains three layers of emulsion which all contain different dyes. When light falls hits a silver bromide molecule, silver cations (Ag+) accepts an electron from the bromine ions (Br-) creating a silver atom. Ag+ + e- Ag Silver ion + Electron Silver atom The bromine atoms that are produced are then trapped in the gelatine. The more light that hits the photographic film the greater the amount of silver that is deposited. As you can see, most of the ways of increasing the rate of reactivity involve increasing the number of successful collisions within the reaction itself. Once you do this the rate of reaction should increase. However, just increasing the number of collisions doesn't necessarily mean that the rate of reaction is increased. This is because in order to increase the rate of reaction you need to increase the number of successful collisions. When collisions occur, if they do not have enough energy, which is in the form of kinetic energy, then they would repel each other. However if they do have enough energy, then they would combine, which is a successful collision. The way in which the rate of reaction is calculated is by using the following formula: Reaction rate= change in amount (or concentration) of a substance/products produced Time taken Therefore, in this case, I will be measuring the rate of reaction by measuring the quantity of products formed. The formula would then be: Reaction rate= carbon dioxide produced Time taken Using this method you can work out the average rate of reaction between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid in the time given for the experiment. ...read more.

Conclusion

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 CO2 produced (cm3) 0 3 7 12 16 21 25 30 34 39 43 45 Concentration of acid: 1M Mass of marble chips: 2 grams Volume of acid: 20ml Time (s) 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 CO2 produced (cm3) 1 6 23 24 32 40 47 52 57 60 60+ 60+ Concentration of acid: 1M Mass of marble chips: 1 gram Volume of acid: 20ml Time (s) 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 CO2 produced (cm3) 0.5 4.5 15 19 25 34 40 46 52 56 58 60+ Here are the results for the concentration of hydrochloric acid: Concentration of acid: 2M Mass of marble chips:1 gram Volume of acid: 20ml Time (s) 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 CO2 produced (cm3) 0 4 9 14 20 26 33 41 49 55 60+ 60+ Concentration of acid: 1M Mass of marble chips: 1 gram Volume of acid: 20ml Time (s) 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 CO2 produced (cm3) 0 3 7 12 16 21 25 30 34 39 43 45 The overall result for the preliminary investigation using the correct quantities would be: Time (s) 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 CO2 produced (cm3) with 1M 0 3 7 12 16 21 25 30 34 39 43 45 The graph for the preliminary investigation looked like this: ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

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