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# Experiment To Investigate What Affects the Size of a Crater

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Introduction

﻿Shi Lin Sharlynn WU S4 Ruby Aim: To investigate what affects the size of a crater Hypothesis: If the height of which the pendulum ball is dropped increases, then the depth of the crater will increase. There is a theory for this. A higher drop would mean that there is a greater gravitational potential energy. When the ball is dropped, all this energy is converted into kinetic energy and it is used up to create a crater in the ground. Variables: 1. Independent: Height at which the pendulum ball is dropped from A one meter ruler is used to measure the height at which the pendulum ball is dropped from the surface of the sand. Each height is recorded down and tabulated together with the results. 1. Dependent: Depth of the crater A vernier caliper is used to measure the depth of the crater. Push out the bottom until it touches the center of the bottom of the crater. Adjust it until the edges of the caliper touches the surface of the sand. ...read more.

Middle

Drop the pendulum ball onto the sand 9. Remove the pendulum ball carefully so as not to destroy the crater made in the sand 10. Using a vernier caliper, measure the depth of the crater 11. Record the reading down 12. Repeat steps 4-10 for heights of 20cm, 30cm, 40cm, 50cm, 60cm, 70cm, 80cm, 90cm and 100cm 13. Repeat the whole experiment once Results: Height/cm Depth/cm 1st 2nd Average 10.00 0.53 0.6 0.57 20.00 0.63 0.74 0.68 30.00 0.73 0.88 0.81 40.00 0.89 0.97 0.93 50.00 1.0 1.06 1.03 60.00 1.1 1.18 1.14 70.00 1.2 1.28 1.24 80.00 1.5 1.3 1.4 90.00 1.54 1.56 1.55 100.00 1.9 1.64 1.77 Evaluation Reliability of method: From the table of results, it can be observed that some results in the first set of data differ greatly from the second set. This shows that the current method is not extremely reliable and changes can be made to improve the experiment. An improvement to the method would be to always measure the volume of the sand used and smooth it down to the marked level on the side of the container. ...read more.

Conclusion

Analysis The graph is a straight line with increasing gradient. It shows that with an increase in height, the average depth of the crater also increases. The line graph does not pass through the origin (0,0) because the graph paper is too small to accommodate 10 sets of results (average of both sets of data). Conclusion The results of the experiment support the hypothesis. When the height at which the pendulum ball increases, the depth of the crater also increases. This is proven by the fact that the greater the distance between the ball and the ground, the greater the gravitational potential energy that the ball possesses. More gravitational potential energy is converted to more kinetic energy when the ball is dropped. As such, there is more energy to cause a greater damage to the ground, or in this case, sand, therefore resulting in an increase of depth of the crater. Limitations and Improvements Limitations Improvements Pendulum ball does not drop straight down directly from where it is released but deviates from its desired path Drop the pendulum ball using a retort stand instead of by hand Removing the pendulum ball by hand Thread a string through the hole in the pendulum ball and lift it out of the sand using that ...read more.

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