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Explain, giving examples from the articles, what is meant by oxidation and show how oxidation reactions are used to cause explosions. Outline reasons why some explosive mixtures oxidise faster than others.

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Introduction

1. * Explain, giving examples from the articles, what is meant by oxidation and show how oxidation reactions are used to cause explosions. Outline reasons why some explosive mixtures oxidise faster than others. [4] An element is oxidised if... It gains oxygen. It loses electrons. Its oxidation state increases. Explosives such as gunpowder or black powder contain powdered carbon, sulphur and potassium nitrate. This can be ignited by a fuse where carbon and sulphur will be oxidised. Carbon will form into Carbon Dioxide and Sulphur will form into Sulphur Dioxide. > This reaction shows when a pure sample of carbon burns in air. C(s) + O2(g) � CO2(g) This is an oxidation reaction where carbon has gained oxygen and its oxidation state has increased from 0 to +4 The potassium nitrate in the gunpowder acts as an oxidiser and provides oxygen for the reaction. All the oxygen required is available almost instantly; therefore carbon and sulphur burn in a fraction of a second. > The reactants and products of this reaction are... Reactants: KNO3(s) C(s) S(s) Products: CO2(g) SO2(g) N2(g) + Other solid products The volume of the reactants is very small. The products are mainly hot gases produced suddenly in a confined area. This rapid increase in pressure leads to an explosion. (132 Words) To maximise the force of the reaction, all solids involved are finely divided into powders and the proportions of reactants in the mixture are calculated very accurately. ...read more.

Middle

The new substance formed was a yellowish oil. He had discovered Nitroglycerine. He experimented with a small sample and realised that was extremely unstable. Its behaviour was unpredictable. It could be detonated by the touch of a feather. Immanuel Nobel and his son Alfred Nobel from Sweden were responsible for controlling Nitroglycerine. Nobel made a deliberate explosion by mixing Nitroglycerine with (kieselguhr) which is a silica based mineral. He made a paste which could be shaped into rods. These would only explode when they are intentionally detonated. These are the very first safe high explosives. Nobel developed even safer ways to detonate these explosives. He found out that the most reliable and effective way to set off nitroglycerine was to use small quantities of gunpowder. He also invented the first percussion cap that gives out a small explosion when it is given a sharp impact. The caps were filled with a compound known as fulminate of mercury Hg(CNO)2. This substance is very sensitive that even a finger tap can cause it to detonate. This ignites the gunpowder or other explosives. In 1867 Nobel patented his dynamite. It was called Dynamite No 1. He soon realised that very effective mixtures could be made by replacing the inert kieselguhr by a substance that would itself burn or explode. He combined nitroglycerine with charcoal, barium nitrate and sulphur which led a new explosive product in 1869. ...read more.

Conclusion

In 1914 a Russian chemist, Chaim Weizmann, developed a new process that produced propane by bacterial fermentation of starch in maize. This process was capable of producing 30 000 tonne. After the war propanone was manufactured from propan-2-ol by passing the vapour over a copper catalyst at 500�C and 400kPa. Propanone was produced from propene, a product of catalytic cracking of crude oil fractions. (230 Words) * Discuss how attitudes to health and safety in chemical research and industrial chemistry have changed over time. Use examples from the history of development and manufactures of explosives and medicines. [4] The discovery of cellulose nitrate was a hazard of health and safety. The discovery of nitroglycerine was another major hazard as it its behaviour was very unpredictable. Its discoverer Ascanio Sobrero was badly scarred as a result of an unexpected explosion that spattered glass fragments into his hands and face. He said "victims killed during nitroglycerine explosions" He was ashamed to be the inventor of such a deadly explosive. In Nobel's nitroglycerine factory, there was an explosion that killed his young brother Emil and another chemist. However test on animals showed that nitroglycerine causes blood vessels of the brain and heart to flow with blood. Nitroglycerine was considered a possible treatment. Nitroglycerine is effective for treating angina pectoris; intense pain in heart. A medicine known as amyl nitrate similar to nitroglycerine are used as treatments to this day. (110 Words) ?? ?? ?? ?? OCR-AS Chemistry (Salters) Open-Book Paper (2005) 2852/01 - 1 - Name: Mohammad Ahmed Candidate No. 9023 ...read more.

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