• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Extraction Of Iron

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Extraction Of Iron Iron, perhaps the most important element to all civilization is also one of earth's most abundant. Like the majority of metal ores, iron ores are not pure compounds. Rather, most iron ore compounds are polluted with sand, rock and silica. The process of extracting iron involves a number of steps. The first step to concentrate the iron ore and remove its contents of silica. To further remove any existing impurities, a complex process takes place in a blast furnace. The charge is where materials are placed into the blast furnace. These materials are: Ore, Limestone and Coke. A burst of hot, oxygen enriched air is blown into the air-blast nozzle located at the near bottom of the furnace. What follows are a number of oxidation and reduction type reactions which ultimately produce the metallic iron. One of these reactions is the coke being burnt. ...read more.

Middle

This takes place in the middle of the furnace. CaCO3(s) (r) CaO(s) + CO2(g) The second step in this process is when the lime reacts with the silica, resulting in calcium silicate. CaO(s) (r) SiO2(s) + CaSiO2(l) At this point, the calcium silicate is a liquid which seems to mean that the lime has served as a flux. The term flux refers to a substance that cause mineral impurities in an ore to melt more readily. The melting process that takes place in the furnace is called smelting. In this process of smelting, the products in the furnace are separated into layers. In this way, the molten iron is the bottom layer and molten calcium silicate is the layer above it. Being that the molten iron is more dense than the molten calcium silicate. The calcium silicate is a kind of slag, formed in a smelting process by the lime combining with the calcium silicate. ...read more.

Conclusion

Gold is at the bottom of the reactivity and this makes it easy to extract. Gold does not corrode because it doesn't react with much at all. Oxidation: Au(s) + 2CN-(aq) --> (Au(CN)2)-(aq) + e- Reduction: O2(g) +2H2O(l) +4e- --> 4OH-(aq) 4Au(s) + 8CN-(aq) + 2H2O(l) +O2(g) --> 4Au(CN)2-(aq) +4OH-(aq) The Au(CN)2-(aq) is separated from the pulp using activated carbon. The gold is then recovered by adding Zinc (metal ion displacement) or by electrolysis. The dissolved Au(CN)2- is separated from the pulp by adsorption on activated carbon in adsorption tanks. The activated carbon is made from vegetable matter such as fruit pips, coconut husks or peat by heating to about 900deg C in the presence of steam and the absence of air. Some ores require additional processing before being treated using the CIP process. This treatment may involve flotation, which serves to concentrate the ore, and roasting, which destroys the mineral structure and makes the gold more accessible to leaching by cyanide. The remaining concentrate can then be successfully treated using the carbon-in-pulp process. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Changing Materials - The Earth and its Atmosphere section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Here's what a star student thought of this essay

4 star(s)

Response to the question

The student has answered the questions well going into great detail about the processes. They have appeared to have answer the question fully.

Read full review

Response to the question

The student has answered the questions well going into great detail about the processes. They have appeared to have answer the question fully.

Level of analysis

The fact that equations and diagrams that are relevant and explained not just put in for the sake of shows that the student knows what they are talking about. But some words I do believe could have been explained to a greater extent because it left me wondering if tne student did at some points know what they were talking about. Otherwise this is a well planned and thought out response. The fact that background information has been given on the two metals gives the reader a context in which to place the two extraction processes. Underlining key phrases and terms is a scientific skill that will help you pick up marks easier as the examiner will not have go hunting for the marking points they will be immediately brought to his attention.

Quality of writing

The technical terms used are to the level expected at GCSE and in some cases go beyond this level. The student has followed scientific conventions and rules about writing about process by not dramatising or adding in information that is not relevant. The spelling, punctuatuon and grammar are all fine. Just remember that explain terms and phrases that you would not have understood before you went on the course to show your teacher/the examiner what you have learnt as this will help you gain extra marks.


Did you find this review helpful? Join our team of reviewers and help other students learn

Reviewed by cheekymokeyxxx 10/02/2012

Read less
Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Changing Materials - The Earth and its Atmosphere essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    How are products from oil obtained and used?

    4 star(s)

    Wind Power Wind power is the exchange of wind energy into a useful form of energy, such as using wind turbines to make electricity. The kinetic energy of the wind is used to drive the turbines and generators. Wind is a renewable resource and free, meaning that the only cost

  2. The aim of this experiment is to determine the order of the reactivity series ...

    Therefore as soon as it is heated this hold copper has on its carbonate is broken and carbon dioxide given off. Copper carbonate will give off the highest volume of carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide will displace the water in the cylinder because carbon is higher in the reactivity series than hydrogen.

  1. Importance of electrolysis in our daily lives

    One of them is purifying aluminum. Aluminum is usually produced from the mineral bauxite. The first step they do is to treat the bauxite so it becomes more pure and ends up as aluminum oxide, . Then they melt the aluminum oxide and puts it in an oven.

  2. Chemical Reactions in the Kitchen

    The single egg proteins will move about slower and will uncurl up more slowly. This will cause the egg proteins to smash into each other at a slower rate. Therefore, there will be less collision occurring. As a result, a reaction under low temperature will have a lower rate of reaction.

  1. Investigating The Reactivity Of The Metals Iron, Magnesium, Zinc, Copper And Calcium And Their ...

    Using the temperature probe it gave accurate readings of the results rather than a normal laboratory thermometer. It was clear to see from using the temperature probe that again as I predicted that calcium was the most reactive metal as it took the shortest time to displace hydrogen whereas copper

  2. We are being advised to reduce our carbon footprint. Discuss the significance of this ...

    Let's start with something everyone need to do to survive, food shopping. More and more products now have a carbon footprint label as this article explains 3 "Carbon footprints Environment: Carbon-footprint labels, which indicate a product's environmental impact, are quietly spreading.

  1. Chemistry- Earth, its structure and atmosphere

    It can rise to the surface through weaknesses in the crust, forming a volcano. Geologists study volcanoes to try to predict future eruptions. Volcanoes can be very destructive, but some people choose to live near them because volcanic soil is very fertile.

  2. Water Crisis. This term refers to the global problem of lack of access ...

    This provides us with food to eat. Plants absorb their nutrients from the soil in the form of dilute aqueous solutions. Chemical industries are the greatest consumers of water; for instance, 170 liters of water is needed to manufacture just 1 kg of steel and about 144 tons of water is needed to produce one ton of paper.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work