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Factor affecting the rate of fermentation.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Project title: Factor affecting the rate of fermentation Aim: To find out the relationship between the concentration of glucose solution and rate of fermentation. Introduction: Fermentation is the process by which the living cell is able to obtain energy through the breakdown of glucose and other simple sugar molecules without requiring oxygen. The process allows respiration to occur in the absence of oxygen. Biologically, it allows cells to obtain energy from fuel molecules (e.g., glucose) anaerobically. Glycolysis, the breakdown of glucose, is a form of fermentation. Alcoholic fermentation occurs when yeast cells convert carbohydrate sources to ethanol and carbon dioxide. Fermentation reactions are common in muscle cells, yeasts, some bacteria, plants, beer and also wine. Fermentation occurs under anaerobic conditions. There are lots of factors that can affect the Rate of the fermentation. Factors might affect the rate of fermentation: * Temperature of the glucose solution * Concentration of the glucose solution * Volume of glucose solution * Amount/ surface area of the catalyst In this experiment, we are going to observe how does the concentration of glucose solution affect the rate of fermentation. We are going to use different concentration of glucose solution (0.5 moles, 1.0 moles, 1.5 moles, 2.0 moles), and we will keep the solutions in the same water bath in 41?, because the yeast will work better at that temperature ( if it is too hot, the yeast will denature, if it is too cold, the yeast will be inactive), we use the same amount of the yeast (3 grams), and we add two drops of NaHCO3 solution in each boiling tubes that contains the yeast and glucose solution, because NaHCO3 solution can speed up the fermentation, the yeast works better in a alkaline condition. ...read more.

Middle

* Blow the rubber tubes, ensure it's not stuck. * Connect the rubber tubes from the boiling tube to the cylinders, make sure the air can be collect in the cylinders. * Label the boiling tube ( which boiling tube is which concentration of glucose solution.) * Pour the different concentration of glucose solution into the boiling tubes. * Put the yeast into the boiling tubes. * Drop two drops of NaHCO3 solution into each boiling tubes. * Shake the boiling tubes for a few minutes. * Put the rubber corks on at the boiling tubes * Start the timers at the same time while put the rubber corks on the boiling tubes. * Observe the water level drops. * Write down the water level each minutes. * Compare the results of different concentration of glucose solutions. Cleanup and disposal: * Wash all the apparatus. * Wash hands after the experiment. * Wipe the table. * Bring all the apparatus back to the place that it placed before. Diagram: Result 1: Dec 13th 0.5 M 1 M 1.5 M 2 M Time (Minutes) Volume of Carbon Dioxide (cm�) Time (Minutes) Volume of Carbon Dioxide (cm�) Time (Minutes) Volume of Carbon Dioxide (cm�) Time (Minutes) Volume of Carbon Dioxide (cm�) 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 1 0.00 1 0.00 1 0.00 1 0.00 2 0.00 2 0.00 2 0.00 2 0.00 3 0.00 3 0.00 3 0.00 3 0.00 4 0.00 4 0.00 4 0.00 4 0.00 5 0.00 5 0.00 5 0.00 5 0.00 6 0.00 6 0.00 6 0.00 6 0.00 7 0.00 7 0.00 7 0.00 7 0.00 8 1.00 8 0.00 8 ...read more.

Conclusion

Conclusion: Fermentation is caused by yeasts and enzymes. Alcohol fermentation is the formation of alcohol from sugar. Yeast, when under anaerobic conditions, convert glucose to pyruvic acid via the glycolysis pathways, then go one step farther, converting pyruvic acid into ethanol, a C-2 compound. Yeast cells will use oxygen if it is present, and break down sugars all the way to CO2 and H2O. In the absence of oxygen, yeast will switch to an alternative pathway that does not require oxygen. The end products of this pathway are CO2 and ethanol. The first pathway yields a lot more energy per sugar molecule consumed, and so it is the "preferred" pathway if oxygen is present. * Glucose + Oxygen = Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy * Glucose => Ethanol + Carbon Dioxide + Energy (C6H12O6 => 2 C2H5OH +2 CO2 + 2 ATP +heat) In this experiment, we can see that the lower concentration the higher rate of fermentation from the results, the water level drops the most in the 0.5 Mole cylinder. There is more fermentation take place while the yeast is in a lower concentration of glucose solution. This is because, there is less glucose molecules in the less concentrated glucose solution, so the surface area for yeast to react with is much bigger than in concentrated glucose solution. The yeast changes the glucose into ethanol, carbon dioxide and energy, the fermentation took place. There will be more yeast work on one glucose molecule in the less concentrated glucose solution, because there are less glucose molecules in the solution, so the rate of fermentation will be much faster than that in the concentrated glucose solution. Evaluation: ...read more.

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