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Factors Affecting the Amount of Carbon Dioxide given off when a Carbonate reacts with an acid

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Introduction

FACTORS AFFECTING THE AMOUNT OF CARBON DIOXIDE GIVEN OFF WHEN A CARBONATE REACTS WITH AN ACID Introduction ACID + METAL CARBONATE --> METAL SALT + WATER + CARBON DIOXIDE When an acid reacts with a metal carbonate, a metal salt, water and carbon dioxide are produced. The amount of carbon dioxide produced depends on various factors. The aim of this experiment is to find out how much Carbon Dioxide (CO2) is given off when different masses of Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3) are reacted with Hydrochloric acid (HCl). The factors affecting the amount of CO2 produced are listed below. Variables Continuos Variables Variable Temperature Very hard to keep constant. Amount of acid As long as there is excess for all carbonate to react, it is therefore not relevant. Concentration of acid Any acid as long as there are enough H+ ions in the acid to react with carbonate. Pressure Hard to keep constant. Surface area Hard to measure surface area of powdered Calcium Carbonate. Rate of stirring Hard to keep constant and very inaccurate. Time Not relevant as rate of reaction has no effect on amount of Carbon Dioxide produced. Amount of carbonate This is the factor under investigation Discontinuous Variables Factor Type of acid All acids contain H+ ions required for reaction. Type of carbonate Some carbonates such as Sodium are soluble, therefore I will not be able to investigate. ...read more.

Middle

To keep this experiment a fair test all three times the following were kept constant: Variable Control of variable Temperature Room Temperature Type & Concentration of acid 2M Hydrochloric Acid Amount of Acid 50ml Pressure Atmospheric Type of carbonate Calcium Carbonate Rate of stirring None The following results were obtained: Experiment 1 Mass of Calcium Carbonate (g) Volume of expected Carbon Dioxide (cm3) Actual volume of Carbon Dioxide produced (cm3) 0.2 48 36 0.4 96 80 0.6 144 94 0.8 192 158 1.0 240 190 Experiment 2 Mass of Calcium Carbonate (g) Volume of expected Carbon Dioxide (cm3) Actual volume of Carbon Dioxide produced (cm3) 0.2 48 30 0.4 96 68 0.6 144 100 0.8 192 142 1.0 240 192 The results obtained above which are in bold I found to be anomalous results. In Experiment 1 -0.6g In Experiment 2 -1.0g I therefore repeated them: Repeats Mass of Calcium Carbonate (g) Volume of expected Carbon Dioxide (cm3) Actual volume of Carbon Dioxide produced (cm3) 0.6 144 98 1.0 240 188 Analysing From the results obtained I could plot the following graphs: 1) Experiment 1 - A graph to show mass of CaCO3 against amount of CO2 produced 2) Experiment 2 - A graph to show mass of CaCO3 against amount of CO2 produced 3) A graph to show mass of CaCO3 against average amount of CO2 produced with expected result All three of the graphs show that as mass of Calcium Carbonate is increased the amount of Carbon Dioxide produce increases. ...read more.

Conclusion

????g of MgCO3 produces 286cm3 of CO2 ????g of MgCO3 produces 228cm3 of CO2 ????g of MgCO3 produces 171cm3 of CO2 ????g of MgCO3 produces 114cm3 of CO2 ????g of MgCO3 produces 57cm3 of CO2 Therefore it can be said that for any carbonate the relationship will be exactly the same, i.e. as the mass of Carbonate is increased the amount of Carbon Dioxide produced increases directly proportionally. 2) Do the whole experiment again but using various different pieces of apparatus. I would do an experiment, which doesn't include water, therefore no gas can be lost. Apparatus required: * Syringe * Trough * Delivery Tube * Round bottomed flask * Calcium Carbonate * 2M Hydrochloric acid * Balance * 5cm Tubes Method * Set apparatus as in diagram below * Place a piece of paper on the balance and zero it * Measure out the required mass of Calcium Carbonate * Pour massed amount of Calcium Carbonate into tube * Place tube in the lip of the round bottomed flask * Connect the delivery tube to the flask * Tap gently so that the tube falls into the acid * Shake fairly gently, making sure you are holding the delivery tube so that it doesn't dislodge from under the measuring cylinder. * When all the Calcium Carbonate has reacted record the final volume of gas obtained. Diagram: ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

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