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Factors Affecting the Decomposition of Marble Buildings by Acid Rain

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Introduction

Factors Affecting the Decomposition of Marble Buildings by Acid Rain Background Knowledge Acid Rain: Nitrogen acids and sulphur dioxides come out of tall chimneys and vehicles. These go into the air, and air currents carry the gases away, and they react with water vapour and oxygen. This produces H2SO4 (sulphuric acid) and HNO3 (nitric acid). The acids become part of a cloud, and it falls down to earth, as acid rain or snow. This can end up miles away from the original source. The acid rain removes nutrients from soil, so plants can not get to them, so this eventually kills surrounding die. It can also get into lakes and rivers, which can kill fish. The same is true for acid snow as it kills fish in rivers and lakes. Rates of reactions: This is how quick a reaction is, you can find out the rate of a reaction by seeing how much of it is used up in a particular amount of time. You could also measure how much is produced as a result of the reaction in a particular amount of time. Reactions take place because of collisions, the particles (can be atoms, ions or molecules) collide, and a reaction occurs between particles. If there are more collisions, the reaction will be much quicker. But it also depends on whether the collision has enough energy, to be successful. ...read more.

Middle

0.15 0.30 0.45 1.00 1.15 1.30 1.45 2.00 Amount of CO2 (cm ) 2 6 11 15 21 26 30 34 I now had, what I thought were suitable reactions. The lowest concentration I am going to use is 0.4M and the highest is 2.0M, this gives me a good range. Also I thought I would use a range 5 (0.4M, 0.8M, 1.2M, 0.6M and 2.0M). I would dilute them, but still keep the total amount of solution at 50cm . For the amount of calcium carbonate, I felt 2g was enough, as I tried using 5g (with 2M of HCl), and got this: Time (seconds) 0.15 0.30 0.45 1.00 1.15 1.30 1.45 2.00 Amount of CO2 (cm ) 25 80 Over 100 - - - - - It was too fast, so I used 1g instead, and got this: Time (seconds) 0.15 0.30 0.45 1.00 1.15 1.30 1.45 2.00 Amount of CO2 (cm ) 0.5 1 1 2 2.5 3 3 3 It was too slow, so I used 2g, and got this: Time (seconds) 0.15 0.30 0.45 1.00 1.15 1.30 1.45 2.00 Amount of CO2 (cm ) 10 24 39.5 54.5 70 85 96 Over 100 I felt this was much better, so I will use 2g of calcium carbonate. Experimental Prediction Using background knowledge and my preliminary work, I can predict that as concentration increases, so does the rate of the reaction. ...read more.

Conclusion

After that measure out 50cm of solution, like this: If you need- 0.4M, put 10cm of HCl with 40cm of water 0.8M, put 20cm of HCl with 30cm of water 1.2M, put 30cm of HCl with 20cm of water 1.6M, put 40cm of HCl with 10cm of water 2.0M, put 50cm of HCl with 0cm of water. Now, put the solution into the conical flask. Then, add the calcium carbonate to it, place the bung on the conical flask and start the stopwatch. This must be done quickly or the results may be slightly incorrect. Every 15 seconds you need to take down how much carbon dioxide was produced, by reading it on the syringe. You should do it for a few minutes, or until the amount of carbon dioxide has exceeded 100cm . You can also collect carbon dioxide over water, and check how much is produced every 15 seconds as well. You can do this, as carbon dioxide is insoluble in water. You would do as above, except put a tube inn a gas jar over water, instead of a syringe. Safety As I was using acid, I made sure it didn't go everywhere, like on me. Also I tried using little amounts of both the acid and calcium carbonate, so it would be very reactive, and also so I could control the experiment. I ensured there weren't any loose pieces of clothing, and I also wore goggles to protect my eyes. Raj Patel LVC Page 1 of 5 ...read more.

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