• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Factors Affecting The Development Of Coronary Heart Disease

Extracts from this document...


Factors Affecting The Development Of Coronary Heart Disease Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) has huge costs to every industrial country and indeed many developing countries. CHD costs the NHS �500 million pounds every year1 in England and Wales. However, the human costs of CHD are much more serious than any financial ones. CHD accounts for 26% of all deaths in England and Wales2, this means that CHD is the most important and common cause of premature death in the UK. CHD also causes serious discomfort and pain in many people due to such problems as angina and other related heart problems. CHD is caused by a thickening of the inside walls of the coronary arteries. This thickening, called atherosclerosis, (sometimes called 'furring' of the arteries) narrows the space through which blood can flow (by means of an atheroma), decreasing and sometimes completely cutting off the supply of blood and therefore oxygen and nutrients to the heart. A complete blockage called myocardial infarction (MI) can result in death whilst a partial blockage can result in Angina (chest pains).3 4 Research over the last 10-20 years has shown that treating the causes of CHD can successfully decrease deaths and disabilities. ...read more.


HDL's have properties which allow them to remove cholesterol from the circulation and therefore protect against CHD. The best way to achieve this ratio of a high level of HDL's to a low level of LDL's is to consume food which contains monounsaturated fats as they lower LDL levels but at the same time do not decrease HDL levels. These fats can be found in olive oil, walnut oil, rapeseed oil and avocado.18 An unhealthy diet, such as the one which is high in calories, salt and cholesterol, carries more 'risk factors' than just high cholesterol. An unhealthy diet can also cause obesity, which can cause or greatly increase the risk of, CHD. In 1979, Bray conducted a study in which a ratio of weight to height was established as the best way of showing obesity in relation to the risk of CHD. The relationship shows a 'J shape' where those who are underweight show a greater risk than those who are 'normal.' However, once the weight of 'normal' has passed, the risk of CHD increases with the level of obesity. This is because obesity causes a rise in blood pressure and a greater strain on the heart.19 An unhealthy diet and therefore obesity can also cause the level of physical activity to decline. ...read more.


The causes, environmental and genetic, are now well understood and a concerted effort to tackle such causes as high blood pressure, hypercholesterolemia, obesity and smoking are underway and hopefully a decrease in deaths and illness from CHD will be observed in the next 10-20 years. By Alex Lawson 1 Department of Health 1992 2 NHS 1991 3 Dr Mary Crossman 4 Dr Kristine Marina's Lectures On CHD 5 BUPA Factsheet - Dr Scott Lennox 6 Coronary Heart Disease Prevention Grace M. Lindsay, Allan Graw 7 Dr Kristine Marina's Lectures On CHD 8 Coronary Heart Disease Prevention Grace M. Lindsay, Allan Graw 9 BUPA Factsheet - Dr Scott Lennox 10 British Heart Foundation - Blood Pressure 11 Coronary Heart Disease Prevention Grace M. Lindsay, Allan Graw 12 British Heart Foundation - Smoking and your Heart 13 Coronary Heart Disease Prevention Grace M. Lindsay, Allan Graw 14 Glantz & Parmley (1995) 15 Dr Kristine Marina's Lectures On CHD 16 Dr Mary Crossman 17 Coronary Heart Disease Prevention Grace M. Lindsay, Allan Graw 18 British Heart Foundation - Lowering Your Cholesterol 19 British Heart Foundation - Physical Activity And Your Heart 20 http://www.coolware.com/health/medical_reporter/risk.html 21 British Heart Foundation - Physical Activity And Your Heart 22 Dr Mary Crossman 23 Coronary Heart Disease Prevention Grace M. Lindsay, Allan Graw 24 Dr Kristine Marina 25 Dr Kristine Marina Alex Lawson 1204 1 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Humans as Organisms section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Humans as Organisms essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Myocardial infarction

    5 star(s)

    However, it was shown that the benefits of late therapy did increase with extended follow up, with 25% reduction in 2-year mortality and 24% reduction in a 3 year mortality ( Rodrigues, 2003 ). Overall, results demonstrated that the use of ACE inhibitors following MI was associated with a 30%

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Investigate the effect of altitude training on the density of blood.

    4 star(s)

    This is the reason for why I have accepted the null hypothesis. The second t-test that I conducted was between blood type A and blood type C. The reason we used blood type A for both the two t-tests was because this would ensure that the results of the two

  1. Coronary heart disease (CHD)

    in public places so that not only will the public be cutting down on the amount they smoke, but also the incidence of passive smoking will be greatly reduced. In order to dissuade people from smoking, the tax could be increased on packs of cigarettes, making them more expensive.

  2. Coronary Heart Disease (CHD).

    enters the lungs causing difficulty in breathing and poor oxygenation of blood. Infarction on the right side causes build up of blood in the veins of the body causing oedema due to back pressure on the capillaries. Prevention of CVD CVD is a long term degenerative disease and people must

  1. Stem Cell Research

    the spine to replace those that have died as a result of the injury. This will lessen the effects of the spinal injury, as lost nerve cells (causing the immobility and loss of feeling) are being replaced. Both of these treatments have already been established in our society (for the

  2. The Biological and Psychological Impact of Smoking Cigarettes

    Infertility is more common in smokers. Smoking is suspected to lower sperm count, cause erectile dysfunction and impotence. Smoking is also proven to affect the unborn baby during pregnancy leading to premature death or the baby inheriting a greater likely hood of developing cancer and other smoking related diseases.

  1. Discuss the division of resources with regards to the prevention and treatment of CHDs:

    Like any other muscle, exercise will increase the strength of the heart muscle and will enable a larger stroke volume to occur, therefore the heart doesn't need to beat as fast to pump as much blood around the body. Lack of exercise will increase the risk of CHD because the

  2. Should people with diabetes 2 receive medical treatment?

    Such diseases are common in developing countries were food is in short supply. An example of one is the disease Kwashiorkor, This condition is caused when an infant is weaned off breast milk because a new infant has arrived but the infant does not receive a protein rich replacement.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work