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Factors Affecting the Fitness of an Individual

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Biology Lab Experiment Factors Affecting the Fitness of an Individual Aim: To find out the factors those affect the fitness of a person by experimental techniques. Key Definitions Exercise Exercise helps one to keep fit. By exercising daily on a regular basis, the various systems of the body adapt to these changes in order to cope with the stresses that is forced on to them due to the exercise. The body can be trained to become stronger, faster and more flexible. Fitness It is the ability of the body systems to cope with the stresses placed upon them. The more demands the body is able to achieve, the more efficiently the body copes and hence the fitter the person is said to be. The Maximum Heart Rate a body can achieve can be derived from the following formula: Maximum Heart Rate = 220 - Person's Age (yrs.) For Example Person's Age = 15 years Maximum Heart Rate = 220 - 15 = 205 beats/minutes Factors to Test * Age * Mass * Body Mass Index (BMI) * Heart Beat per Minute/ Pulse Rate Equipment Needed Apparatus Quantity Reasoning Stop Watch (+0.005 s) 1 To measure the time for the experiment. Running Tracks 1 An Open Space needed to conduct the experiment efficiently. Weighing Scale (+0.05 kg) 1 To weigh the Subject and find their mass in kilograms. Measuring Tape (+0.5 cm) 1 To measure the height of the two Subjects in meters Subjects 2 Their fitness will be tested and will undergo the exercise program. Note The two Subjects should be: 1. Of Different Ages 2. Of Same Sex/ Gender 3. Of Different Masses 4. Not Physically or Mentally Handicapped Plan First I will test the fitness of the two individuals before implementing my exercise training plan. To test their fitness, I will measure their Pulse Rate at rest and then ask them to run for 200 meters. ...read more.


Time (s) (+0.005 s) Average Speed (m/s) (2 decimal places) Pulse Rate (beats/ min) Week 1 Monday 1000 500.89 1.996446 = 2.00 147 Wednesday 1000 495.78 2.017024 = 2.02 147 Friday 1000 493.11 2.027945 = 2.03 146 Week 2 Monday 1000 493.48 2.026425 = 2.03 146 Wednesday 1000 492.16 2.03186 = 2.03 145 Friday 1000 491.88 2.033016 = 2.03 144 Day Pulse Rate (beats/ minute) with Time (minutes) after Lap was finished 0 min 1 min 2 min 3 min 4 min 5 min Week 1 Monday 147 143 139 134 131 127 Wednesday 147 142 136 132 129 125 Friday 146 141 137 134 130 125 Week 2 Monday 146 141 136 131 125 122 Wednesday 145 140 135 131 125 122 Friday 144 139 134 129 124 120 A Note about both the Subjects after 2 weeks of Intensive Exercise Program Subject 1: (a) Gender = Male (b) Age = 20 years (c) Weight (+0.05 kg) = 62.4 kilograms (d) Height (+0.5 cm) = 165 cm (5 feet 6 inches) (e) BMI = (62.4/ (1.65 x 1.65)) = 22.92 (2 decimal places) (f) Normal Pulse Rate/ Heart Beat (at Rest) = 84 beats/ minute Subject 2: (a) Gender = Male (b) Age = 40 years (c) Weight (+0.05 kg) = 84.5 kilograms (d) Height (+0.5 cm) = 175 cm (5 feet 10 inches) (e) BMI = (84.5/ (1.75 x 1.75)) = 27.59 (2 decimal places) (f) Normal Pulse Rate/ Heart Beat (at Rest) = 75 beats/ minute Note: The two Subjects were given a fixed diet that they had to follow during the experiment. This diet lasted for 14 days or two weeks and was accepted by both of the Subjects. The diet is given in the table below: Food Item Part of the Day Rich In ... Used for ... Egg and Milk with Cereals Breakfast Proteins Repairing Damaged Cells Lentil Soup, Salad, Vegetables and Chapatti Lunch Proteins. ...read more.


Also as a safety measure we could not have it already attached while the Subject is conducting the program. The Digital Weighing Scale has an inaccuracy of +0.05kg and the stop watch of +0.005s. The stop watch might not have been stopped or started at the correct time. The two subjects also did not run at the same speed in all the experiments. The BMI values are also altered by the height of the two Subjects and their individual masses. The BMI readings can: A) It may overestimate body fat in athletes and others who have a muscular build. B) It may underestimate body fat in older persons and others who have lost muscle mass. Other than this no serious problems were faced during the experiment. Good readings were observed. Fair Test * The subjects of the same Sex were used for the experiments. * To gain fair results and understand the relationship between fitness and age better, Subjects of different ages were chosen for the experiments. * A designed diet plan was given to the Subjects prior to the experiment so that the factor of Diet did not involve in the experiment. * Only after the subject finished the course, the Pulse Rate was measured. * It was made sure that the Subjects did not stop when the experiment was in progress. Errors in the Experiment o One might have skipped a beat while counting the Pulse Rate. o Stop swatch might not have started or stopped at the right time. o Subjects were stopping in middle of exercise to catch their breath. o Subjects not running at the same speed in all the laps. Improvements * Test for other factors like Sex, Diet, etc. * Use a Digital Pulse Rate Recorder * Verify the effect of one factor only instead of multiple factors. For example: only BMI can be tested for its effects and other factors should be kept constant. * One can also test the effect of Drugs and Alcohol on their fitness. ?? ?? ?? ?? Romin Parekh X - B - 1 - ...read more.

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