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Factors affecting the rate of a reaction.

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Introduction

Science Coursework Factors Affecting the Rate Of A Reaction Aim: The aim of our experiment is to find out the effect of Hydrochloric acid concentration on rate of reaction with magnesium. What I Already Know: I already know that when hydrochloric acid reacts with magnesium it creates magnesium chloride and gives off hydrogen gas. I also know due to my preliminary experiments that this is an exothermic reaction, which means that heat is given out during the reaction. Volume of acid (cm3) Temperature increase after the reaction (degrees C) 10 15 20 14 40 7 Using these results I can choose the volume of acid I am going to use. If I used 10cm3 the temperature given off might affect my results. From the results I have collected I can observe that I should use between 25cm3 and 40cm3 in order to avoid the heat affecting my reaction. Also due to this experiment I have discovered that as you increase the volume of the acid in this reaction the amount of heat given off is shared amongst the bigger volume therefore affecting the results of my reaction less. ...read more.

Middle

We know any less than this will result in a temperature rise that may affect our results. First we will set up our apparatus (see diagram). Then we will do the experiment using different concentrations of acid with a range of 0.5 molar to 1.5 molar. We will measure the amount of hydrogen gas produced every 10 seconds to find the rare of reaction. The strip of magnesium we use will be 2cm long each time. We will repeat our readings twice In order to attain an average and hopefully avoid any anomalies that may occur. Diagram: Equipment: Conical flask Hydrochloric acid Stopwatch Magnesium strips Measuring cylinder Ruler Empty ice cream tub Ruber tube Prediction: I predict that as we increase the concentration of the acid, the time taken for the reaction to finish will decrease. As a result of this the rate of reaction will increase. I believe it will do this because as we increase the concentration of the acid the more acid particles there are to the same volume and less water particles there are, therefore more acid particles will be moving around in the reaction increasing the chance of successful collisions between hydrochloric acid and magnesium particles. ...read more.

Conclusion

16 16 1.5 4.5 14.5 15 15.5 15.5 15.5 15.5 15.5 15.5 15.5 15.5 15.5 Conclusion: From the graph and my results table i can see that my prediction was proved right .This is due to the fact that i stated that the highest concentration Hydrochloric Acid (1.5M) would have the fastest reaction rate(4.5 cm3 produced in 10 s) whereas the lowest concentration of Hydrochloric Acid (0.5M) would have the slowest reaction rate (1 cm3 produced in 60 s)which were both shown to be correct. However this is not including water which didn't have any effect on the magnesium whatsoever.This is because in order for any reaction to occur, particles of both substances must first collide. In a solution with a higher concentration there is a larger amount of particles to react thus allowing for more successful collisions and a higher collision frequency to occur. As reactions rely on successful collisions occuring, a higher collision frequency leads to a faster reaction rate. Furthermore as the number of water particles decreases there is becomes a smaller chance of the acid particles becoming obstructed by the water particles thus giving them more possibilities to collide with the magnesium. ...read more.

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