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Factors affecting the rate of reaction between Hydrochloric Acid and Magnesium.

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Introduction

Factors Affecting the Rate of Reaction between Hydrochloric Acid and Magnesium I will be looking at how the concentration of hydrochloric acid affects the rate of reaction between hydrochloric acid and magnesium ribbon. I will need to time how fast this gas is produced to see how the rate of the reaction changes. The independent variable, the one that will change, therefore has to be the concentration of hydrochloric acid. The controlled variables are the ones which need to the kept the same to prevent unreliable results coming forth during the experiment. Collision Theory A chemical reaction can only occur between particles when they collide. Particles may be atoms, ions or molecules. There is a minimum amount of energy which colliding particles need in order to react with each other. If the colliding particles have less than this minimum energy, they will just bounce off each other and no reaction will occur. This minimum energy is called the activation energy. The faster the particles are going, the more energy they have. Fast moving particles are more likely to react when they collide. You can make particles move more quickly by heating them up, raising the temperature. ...read more.

Middle

I think this because the collision theory suggests that the more moving particles there are, the more collisions there will be and there will be a quicker reaction. I think every reaction will be quicker then the previous one and that the difference between the 0.4M experiment and 1.0M experiment will be quite substantial. Results; tables Here are the results from my experiment; they show the concentration of the hydrochloric acid, volume of hydrogen produce, and the two experiment times taken and an average worked out from the two times. 0.4 Molar Concentration H2 Volume (cm3) Experiment 1 Time (s) Experiment 2 Time (s) Average Time (s) 10 46 38 42 20 70 69 69.5 30 103 107 105 40 137 147 142 50 174 191 182.5 60 216 236 226 70 257 287 272 80 312 338 325 90 359 404 381.5 100 418 478 448 H2 Volume (cm3) Experiment 1 Time (s) Experiment 2 Time (s) Average Time (s) 10 17 17 17 20 29 30 29.5 30 43 45 44 40 59 58 58.5 50 74 74 74 60 91 91 91 70 108 109 108.5 80 127 130 128.5 90 148 150 149 100 172 177 174.5 0.6 Molar Concentration 0.8 Molar Concentration H2 Volume (cm3) ...read more.

Conclusion

The concentration and volume of the hydrochloric acid could have also been unreliable, although the use of burettes helped maintain a decent level of accuracy. The ideal method of measuring the volume and concentration of hydrochloric acid is to use industrial machines which are built to measure out chemicals very accurately. The surface area of the magnesium strip was one of the controlled variables which could have lead to anomalous results. This is because the surface area of the magnesium was not accurately measured; it was only assumed that if we use a 10 cm strip of magnesium there would be no fluctuation in thickness or width of the strip. This could have been improved if magnesium was accurately measured and cut with a cutting instrument, rather than by hand. Due to the lack of resources presented to us by school, students had to work together to get results which could be used, I have used the same results as a fellow student. My experiment could have been improved if I had completed it myself to my own personal level of detail and accuracy rather than it being done by a group of students where there are more openings for human error. Saqib Khan 11P 18.10.2003 ...read more.

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