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Factors Affecting the Reaction Rate Between Magnesium and HCL.

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Introduction

Factors Affecting the Reaction Rate Between Magnesium and HCL Planning * Hypothesis I predict that as the temperature increases, the speed of the reaction will increase therefore the gas will be produced faster. I believe this because most chemical reactions happen faster when the temperature is higher. At higher temperatures molecules mover around faster, which makes it easier for them to react together. Usually, a rise of 10OC will double the rate of reaction. Chemical reactions take place by chance. Particles need to collide with enough velocity so that they react. As the temperature is increased the particles move faster since they have more energy. This means that they are colliding more often and more of the collisions have enough velocity to cause a reaction. Since there are more collisions the chemical reaction takes place faster. * Pilot Experiment To decide on the best volume and concentration of hydrochloric acid and best mass of magnesium a number of calculations were done and a pilot experiment conducted. The equation for the reaction is: Magnesium(s) + Hydrochloric Acid(l) Magnesium Chloride(l) + Hydrogen(g) Mg(s) + 2HCL(l) MgCl2(l) + H2(g) We were advised to use 0.1g of magnesium ribbon (found to be 10.9 cm long). The Relative Molecular Mass (RMM) of magnesium is 24, therefore the moles of magnesium to be used was: Moles= 0.1 24 Moles= 0.00416 In the reaction above, 1 mole of magnesium reacts with 2 moles of hydrochloric acid. ...read more.

Middle

A 100cm3 gas syringe should be appropriately accurate for measuring the gas produced since it is accurate to 1cm3 of gas. I will use a three figure balance to measure the mass of magnesium to be used since it is vital that as close to 0.1g of magnesium is used as possible. * Variables I have chosen to repeat the experiment 3 times because it therefore allows me to calculate an average rate of reaction. This will ensure that there are no abnormal results and it will increase accuracy. I have decided to start readings at 20OC and increase by 10OC each time until 60OC is reached, since it will allow me to see the increase in rate of reaction and 5 results should be enough to identify any trends. * Rates of Reaction Increasing the temperature increases the speed of the particles. The faster the particles move, the greater the number of collisions, and therefore the rate of the reaction increases. A 10OC rise in temperature almost doubles the rate of most reactions. Chemical reactions take place by chance. Particles need to collide with enough velocity so that they react. As the temperature is increased the particles move faster since they have more energy. This means that they are colliding more often and more of the collisions have enough velocity to cause a reaction. ...read more.

Conclusion

Although the initial rate of reaction (which is what I am concerned with in this investigation) seemed to fit a trend, the rate of reaction curves of some temperatures on the graphs crossed. This could have been because some of the magnesium had corroded forming a magnesium oxide layer which would have affected the rate of reaction. Other factor which could have given me unreliable results could have been that the gas syringes were wet causing them to jam and so not giving correct results or that the bung was not placed on the top of the side arm tube fast enough which allowed gas to escape. I conducted all three experiments for each temperature at the same time to save time. An error in my graphs (plotting, drawing curves or calculating gradients) could have also affected the calculated rates of reaction. To improve the experiment I would find a way of attaching and releasing the magnesium inside the side arm tube above the acid (with a bung at the top of the side arm tube) so that the magnesium could be dropped into the acid without any gas being lost. Additional work, which could be carried out, is to repeat the experiment using, a wider range of temperatures. The investigation could also be extended to investigate other factors affecting the rate of reaction such as catalysts, concentration of the acid or particle size of the magnesium. ...read more.

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