• Join over 1.2 million students every month
• Accelerate your learning by 29%
• Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
1. 1
1
2. 2
2
3. 3
3
4. 4
4
5. 5
5
6. 6
6
7. 7
7
8. 8
8

Factors That Affect Velocity

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Factors That Affect Velocity

Aim:

The aim of this experiment is to see how velocity is affected by the height of the plane (angle) and the distance travelled.

Hypothesis:

I predict that as the height of the plane increases, the velocity of the dynamic trolley will also increase. This is because: mgh = ½mv²

• m = mass (in kilograms)
• g = gravitational acceleration of the earth
• h = height above earth's surface (in meters)
• v = velocity (in meters/sec)

From the equation, you can see that as height increases, velocity will also increase and vice versa. As the velocity increases there will be more air resistance but the frictional force against the dynamic trolley will remain the same, therefore the resistive forces will not be enough to counteract the increase in speed.

I also think that the velocity will increase when the distance that the trolley has to travel is increased. Air resistance and the frictional forces against the trolley will increase.

Apparatus:

• Clamp
• Inclined plane
• Stand
• Foam barrier
• Light gate
• Data harvester
• Dynamic trolley

Apparatus Diagram:

Method:

In this experiment I aim to find out how height and distance affect velocity. I shall do this by setting up an experiment involving a light gate and a dynamic trolley. The light gate is

Middle

2.313

2.307

2.29

2.303

5.305

0.40

0.222

2.44

2.434

2.447

2.44

5.955

sinø was calculated by:  (opposite/hypotenuse)

= (height/1.8)

Table 2: shows the velocity of the trolley when travelling different distances.

 Length (m) Velocity1 (m/s) Velocity2 (m/s) Velocity3 (m/s) Average Velocity (m/s) 0.2 0.798 0.784 0.778 0.787 0.4 0.982 0.974 0.968 0.975 0.6 1.143 1.149 1.14 1.144 0.8 1.273 1.28 1.277 1.277 1 1.402 1.409 1.411 1.407 1.2 1.633 1.627 1.631 1.63 1.4 1.569 1.598 1.569 1.579 1.6 1.573 1.575 1.576 1.575 1.8 1.66 1.679 1.671 1.67

Analysis:

Graph 1: the relationship of the velocity squared (v²) of the trolley with the height of the plane.

Graph 2: the relationship of the velocity squared of the trolley when the height of the plane is changed.

Graph 3: shows how the velocity of the trolley is affected by the distance travelled.

Evaluation:

Graph 1 shows that the velocity squared (v²) increases as the height of the ramp increases and therefore my hypothesis is proved correct. This can be explained by the principle of conservation of energy

Conclusion

Newton's 1st law comes into place: when an object stays at rest or moves at a constant velocity, there must be balanced forces.

From graph 3, I can see that the terminal velocity is

Improvements:

There are many ways in which my project could have been improved. I could have:

• Taken more than three readings; this would have made the accuracy of the data much more reliable.
• Used larger range of heights and distance, this could have shown me whether the trend I got from the graphs continued and so forth, the results and graphs would have been more accurate.
• In this experiment, the height and length were changed by 0.05m and 0.2m respectively.  The accuracy of the results could be improved by implementing smaller changes in the height and length of the slope.
• A more uniform ramp could have been used to decrease frictional forces against the trolley.

Conclusion:

From the results and my analysis of them,  I can conclude that when one variable changes, it will effect other variables, depending on what the relationship is between the two variables. In the lab when the:

• frictional coefficient increases, the acceleration decreases.
• height of the slope increases, the potential energy of the trolley increases.
• angle of the incline increases, the velocity increases.
• distance travelled increases, the velocity also increases but only until the forces become balanced, which then results in constant velocity.

Bibliography:

• Understanding physics for advanced level by Jim Breithaupt

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Forces and Motion section.

Found what you're looking for?

• Start learning 29% faster today
• 150,000+ documents available
• Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
• Join over 1.2 million students every month
• Accelerate your learning by 29%
• Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Related GCSE Forces and Motion essays

1. An investigation into factors that effect the braking distance of a trolley

It would be pointless to experiment with heights ranging from 1cm-4cm because series of data would be small in order to show trends. I have chosen a range of 5cm - 45cm giving a better variation. We are going to release the trolley three times for each height.

2. Investigating the Factors Which Affect the Motion of a Trolley Down an Inclined Plane

Newton's first law is concerned with objects at rest or those moving at a constant speed. His second law is concerned with the motion of accelerating and decelerating objects. When accurate investigations are made, the results show that the acceleration doubles when the force doubles and acceleration trebles when the

1. Investigate the factors which affect the terminal velocity of a falling object.

any major temperature changes and left for a few minutes to ensure that the temperature remains stable throughout the experiment. To measure the density of the oil it should be weighed (in kg) in the measuring cylinder on a scale but the mass of the measuring cylinder should also be

2. In this experiment I aim to find out how the force and mass affect ...

The reason for this statement to be true is because the more weight that is put on the trolley the more downwards force is exerted on the trolley, and the force is greater than gravity and so it goes slower down the ramp than it would do if I had no weights on it.

1. See if the height of the summit affects the average speed at which the ...

- as this is included in the formula for potential energy, the height of the ramp should affect the speed of the trolley in some way. I will be modulating this variable in the primary experiment, but it should be constrained to a single height in the secondary experiment.

2. How does height influence velocity.

Kinetic energy, like potential energy, is measured in joules. Kinetic energy is moving energy. The formula used to find out gravitational potential energy is Gravitational potential energy = mass x gravitational field strength x height or mgh. The height is measured in metres. Gravitational potential energy is stored energy that can be turned into kinetic energy.

1. A trolley is pushed to the top of a ramp, the summit being 20cm ...

That's basically it, the rest is all common sense. Fair Testing As with all scientific experiments, only one variable must be altered at one time. All the rest must remain constant to ensure good sensible results. By using present knowledge, I know that the following factors can affect the outcome and must be controlled: � Height of ramp -

2. Prove that &amp;quot;Frictional Forces are Surface dependant&amp;quot;.

to overcome friction is proportional to the total perpendicular force pressing one surface against the other. E.g.: when the weight of a box being pulled across the floor is doubled, the force pulling the box must be doubled. The ratio between the weight being pulled/pushed, and the force required is called the coefficient of friction.

• Over 160,000 pieces
of student written work
• Annotated by
experienced teachers
• Ideas and feedback to