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Find out how concentration affects the rate of reaction between HCL and marble chips

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Planning (concentration) Aim: In this investigation my aim is to find out how concentration affects the rate of reaction between HCL and marble chips Hypothesis: My hypothesis for this experiment is: "As the concentration is increased so will the rate of reaction" Prediction: The more the concentration is increased of the acid the greater will be the rate of reaction, because if you increase the concentration of the reactant, the PH is a measure of the concentration of the hydrogen ions and roundabout the strength of the acid this also increases the number of collisions between the particles and as a result increases the rate of reaction. This explains why the greatest rate of reaction is almost immediately after the reactants are mixed i.e. the reactants are both at their maximum concentration. Independent variable: For my experiment my independent variable will be the constant changing of the HCL Dependant variable: For my experiment my dependant variable will be the time it takes to collect 20cm3 of gas Control variable: For this experiment to ensure I keep it a fair test I shall make sure that: * Marble chips must weigh 10g * The experiment should be repeated twice Apparatus: * Marble chips * Tub for water * Rubber bung * Stop watch * Water * Hydrochloric acid ...read more.

Middle

Surface area actual Aim: For this investigation my aim is to find out how changes in surface area increases the rate of reaction Hypothesis: "As I increase the surface area, the rate of reaction increases" Prediction: The surface area should have an affect on the rate of reaction so I predict the larger the surface area the faster the rate of reaction. The surface area of the marble will affect the amount of ions colliding meaning the more ions colliding with the acid is increasing the rate of reaction. Independent variables: My independent variable is the constant changing of the surface area Dependant variable: Time taken for reaction to stop Control variable: Marble chips should all be the same weight Temperature should be kept constant Apparatus: * HCL * Marble chips * Calcium carbonate * Conical flask * Measuring cylinder * Scale * Goggles Method: * Measure 10g of Mg on a scale * Measure 10cm3 of HCL in a measuring cylinder * Put the HCL in the conical flask * Then put the Mg in the conical flask * Then every 30 seconds record the weight * Repeat the experiment decreasing the surface area each time (large, medium & powdered) ...read more.

Conclusion

* Then place them both in the water bath * Then when the acid and sodium thiosulphate are warm enough put them both in a conical flask and time how long it takes for the cross to disappear from sight. * Repeat this procedure with different temperatures Result: Temperature (OC) Time (Sec) 20 133 30 92 40 44 50 39 60 28 1/Time: Conclusion: The temperatures of the reactants have a very big affect on the rate of reaction, in principle the higher the temperature, the faster the reaction. The two molecules will only react if there is enough energy in them, by heating a mixture the energy levels will be increased making the molecules bump into each other faster and more frequently (kinetic theory). EVALUATION 1. As a group we ensured everything was done in a fair manor. 2. Sometimes we would take out our test tubes from the water bath so the temperatures weren't always exactly as we wanted them to be. 3. While we were handling the HCL we had goggles on but no gloves just incase the acid spilt on our hands. 4. We could have had conducted other experiments to see whether other factors affect the rate at which a reaction reacts, these include: * Light * Catalyst * ] By jala salih ...read more.

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