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Find out how different concentrations of HCl affect the rate of the reaction with magnesium. Also compare the rate of the reaction of magnesium in HCl, H2So4 and CH3COOH.

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Introduction

PLAN. THE AIM: * To find out how different concentrations of HCl affect the rate of the reaction with magnesium. * To compare the rate of the reaction of magnesium in HCl, H2So4 and CH3COOH. * To find the overall order of the reactions. THEORY: When a reaction takes place the particles of the reacting substance must collide with each other and a fixed amount of energy called the activation energy must be reached if the reaction is to take place. If a collision between particles can produce sufficient energy (i.e if they collide fast enough and in the right direction) a reaction will take place. Not all collisions will result in a reaction. A reaction is speeded up if the number of suitable collisions is increased. The rate of a chemical reaction is a measure of how fast a reaction takes place. Some reactions are very fast while others are very slow. The rate of the a reaction is given the symbol rA and the normal units are moldm��s��. It can depend on the following factors: * The concentrations of the reactants. * The temperature. * The presence of a catalyst. The rate of a reaction can be altered by increasing or decreasing one of the above factors. THE EFFECT OF CONCENTRATION ON THE RATE OF A REACTION. According to the kinetic theory the molecules in gases and liquids are in continuous motion and are forever bumping into each other. When they collide there is a chance that they will react. The more concentrated the reactants, the greater the rate of the reaction. This is because increasing the concentration of the reactants increases the number of collisions between particles and so increases the rate of the reaction. This also shows why the rate of a reaction is greatest when the reactants are first mixed together (the concentration of both the reactants are at their highest). ...read more.

Middle

* Repeat the above steps for different concentrations of CH3COOH. * Then find the average time for each of these reactions. * Use the average time to calculate the rate of the reaction. * Then draw a graph of concentration of the acid on the x-axis against the rate of the reaction on the y-axis. * Use these graphs to find the order of the reaction. IMPLEMENTING. RESULTS FOR VARYING CONCENTRATIONS AND DIFFERENT ACIDS. Time (Seconds) C Concentrations (M) 1st Try 2nd Try 3rd Try 2.00 20 21 19 1.00 90 100 105 0.50 408 410 421 0.25 2165 2230 2210 0.20 2990 2830 2890 0.10 6452 6398 6400 Time (Seconds) Concentrations (M) 1st Try 2nd Try 3rd Try 2 12 15 14 1 35 38 37 0.5 252 290 286 0.25 610 625 615 0.2 2440 2435 2370 0.1 6660 6690 6675 Time (Seconds) Concentrations(M) 1st Try 2nd Try 3rd Try 2 110 105 115 1 340 335 355 0.5 990 985 965 0.25 3010 3110 3005 0.2 3700 3750 3690 0.1 7200 7150 7350 RESULTS FOR VARYING TEMEPRATURES. The acid used = HCl. Concentration of acid = 1M. The volume of acid used = 10cm�. The length of magnesium used = 1cm. The volume of gas collected = 10cm�. Time (Seconds) Temperature (�C) 1st Try 2nd Try 3rd Try 0 330 320 325 27 90 100 105 40 29 30 21 60 24 26 25 80 10 15 18 ANALYSIS. RESULTS. Acid used = HCl. Time(Seconds) Concentration(M) 1st Try 2nd Try 3rd Try Average Rate (1/time) s�� � 10�� 2.00 20.00 21.00 19.00 20.00 50 1.00 90.00 100.00 105.00 98.30 10 0.50 408.00 410.00 421.00 413.00 2.42 0.25 2165.00 2230.00 2210.00 2201.70 0.454 0.20 2990.00 2830.00 2890.00 2903.30 0.344 0.10 6452.00 6398.00 6400.00 6416.70 0.156 Acid used = H2SO4 Time(Seconds) Concentration(M) 1st Try 2nd Try 3rd Try Average Rate (1/time) s�� � 10�� 2.00 12.00 15.00 14.00 13.70 70 1.00 35.00 38.00 37.00 36.70 27 0.50 252.00 290.00 286.00 276.00 3.6 0.25 ...read more.

Conclusion

This in turn would have affected the accuracy of the final results I got. The main difficulties I found in doing this experiment was to put the bung into the test tube as soon as I added the magnesium and to also start the stop clock as soon as I added the magnesium. I did try my best to put the bung in as soon as I added the magnesium but still some of the gas would still escape before I could put the bung on. I also found it very hard to start the stop clock immediately after I added the magnesium. Some time did pass before I could start the stop clock because I had to put the bung in first. To overcome this error I found the average time taken for the reaction. All the concentrations I used in this experiment where made from 2M acid. This means the accuracy of the molarity and the amounts of water added would affect the accuracy. But since the percentage uncertainties for the apparatus I used to make these dilutions were very small, I don't think this would give me a percentage error in the overall results of the experiment. CONCLUSION. After doing this experiment I can conclude that the rate of the reaction increases as the concentration of the acids increase. The overall order of the reaction between magnesium and HCl is second order with respect to the acid. Rate = k [HCl]� k = 4.44 � 10� dm�mol��s��. [Mg] is not added in the rate equation because the magnesium is a solid and its concentration does not vary even though its mass is decreasing. The overall order of the reaction between Mg and H2SO4 is also second order with respect to the acid. Rate = k [H2SO4] k = 7.74 � 10� dm�mol��s��. The overall order of the reaction between Mg and CH3COOH is second order with respect to the acid. Rate = k [CH3COOH] k = 2.44 � 10� dm�mol��s��. ...read more.

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