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Find Out How The Rate Of Reaction Can Change Between Magnesium And Sulphuric Acid.

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Introduction

RATES OF REACTION AIM: To Find Out How The Rate Of Reaction Can Change Between Magnesium And Sulphuric Acid Background Information For this piece of coursework, I will have to determine how the rate of reaction can be altered between magnesium and sulphuric acid. In order for a reaction to take place, successful collisions must occur, but not all collisions are successful in producing a reaction. Only a small fraction of collisions will result in a reaction, which are known as effective collisions. For example, many collisions occur between the molecules in a mixture of hydrogen gas and oxygen gas. If every collision produced a reaction, the experiment will be completed in a fraction of a second. Heating the mixture can do this. But at room temperature there is little reaction between the colliding hydrogen and oxygen molecules. All colliding particles need a minimum amount of energy before a reaction; this energy is called the activation energy (Ea). Below this a collision cannot occur to produce a reaction between the molecules. Reaction between molecules are usually slow at room temperature when molecules collide, a lot of energy is needed to break the bonds between molecules, thus the activation energy for these reactions is high. Reactions between ions are usually very fast at room temperature. The activation energy is low and almost every ion will react on collisions with an oppositely charged ion. Various factors can change the rate of reaction, the five most important factors are: 1. Concentration 2. Pressure 3. Surface area 4. ...read more.

Middle

ACID WATER GAS COLLECTED (ML) Time taken (Mins) (20ml) Time taken (Mins) (40 ml) Time taken (Mins) (60ml) Time taken (Mins) (80ml) Time taken (Mins) (100ml) 50 0 100 2 7 3 20 30 40 10 100 5 11 17 24 35 30 20 100 8 18 29 43 115 20 30 100 26 55 84 115 151 10 40 100 120 252 403 588 - 0 50 100 - - - - - (2) ACID WATER GAS COLLECTED (ML) Time taken (secs) (20ml) Time taken (secs) (40 ml) Time taken (secs) (60ml) Time taken (secs) (80ml) Time taken (secs) (100ml) 50 0 100 4 10 17 25 36 40 10 100 4 10 18 26 42 30 20 100 12 25 33 48 121 20 30 100 21 55 70 98 130 10 40 100 124 293 424 611 - 0 50 100 - - - - - Averaged Results ACID WATER GAS COLLECTED (ML) Time taken (Secs) (20ml) Time taken (Secs) (40 ml) Time taken (Secs) (60ml) Time taken (Secs) (80ml) Time taken (Secs) (100ml) 50 0 100 3 8.5 15 22.5 30 40 10 100 4.5 10.5 17.5 25 38.5 30 20 100 10 21.5 31 45.5 138 20 30 100 23.5 55 67 106.5 140.5 10 40 100 121 272.5 433.5 619.5 - 0 50 100 - - - - - Calculations RATE OF REACTION = AMOUNT OF GAS GIVEN OFF CM 3 / SEC TIME TAKEN RESULTS 1 (1) ...read more.

Conclusion

Evaluation I believe that the experiment was successful but some of the results were unreliable. The some results have been ignored in this investigation .the experiment was designed well but there were a few problems. Although the initial rate of reaction (which is what I am concerned with in this investigation) seemed to fit a trend, the rate of reaction curves of some on the graph crossed. This could have been because some of the magnesium had corroded forming a magnesium oxide layer, which would have affected the rate of reaction. Other factor which could have given me unreliable results could have been that the gas syringes were wet causing them to jam and so not giving correct results or that the bung was not placed on the top of the side arm tube fast enough which allowed gas to escape. I conducted all experiments for each temperature at the same time to save time. To improve the experiment I would find a way of attaching and releasing the magnesium inside the side arm tube above the acid (with a bung at the top of the side arm tube) so that the magnesium could be dropped into the acid without any gas being lost. Additional work, which could be carried out, is to repeat the experiment using, a wider range of concentrations. The investigation could also be extended to investigate other factors affecting the rate of reaction such as the particle size of the magnesium. ...read more.

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