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# Find out if doubling the concentration and the temperature will double the reaction rate.

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Introduction

1.1Aim The aim of this experiment is to find out if doubling the concentration and the temperature will double the reaction rate. Different factors affect reaction rate between Marble chips (CaCO3) and Hydrochloric acid (HCl) when it takes place to produce Calcium Chloride and Water and Carbon dioxide. There are many factors effect the rate of this reaction such as the following: 1. Temperature 2. Concentration The reaction that will take place is Hydrochloric acid + Calcium Carbonate >======>Calcium Chloride + Water + Carbon dioxide The equation for this reaction is: 2HCl +CaCO3 >======>CaCl2 + H2O + CO2 I predict that if the concentration of the HCl is doubled then the experiment will happen twice as fast. This is because twice as many HCl particles will be present than previously and there will be twice as much chance of the calcium carbonate chips colliding with the concentrated hydrochloric acid. Therefore when the concentration is double the time take for the reaction should be halved. Also when temperature double time of the reaction will halve because energy of collisions in the particles increases, this means that there are going to be more successful collisions. 1.2. Background 1.2.1 Collision theories: A reaction occurs when the molecules of two or more reactants collide into one another. Then the reaction takes place. If they have sufficient energy, after the collision and subsequent reaction has taken place, 'products' are produced. In the case of this experiment carbon dioxide is the product of the reaction between marble chips and Hydrochloric acid. (Collision Theory Diagram) 1.2.2 Activation energy - The amount of energy needed for the reaction to be started. If there is enough energy then the reaction takes place and a product is formed, but if there isn't enough then no reaction takes place. 1.2.3 There are two possibilities for increasing the rate of reaction: 1. The activation energy is reduced so that there is a better chance of particles having enough energy to react. ...read more.

Middle

However in order to create a 0.05M, 0.08333M and 0.06666M solution we had to mix different solutions. The 0.05M solution was made using 15ml of deionised water and 15ml of 0.1M solution; this was then stirred with a glass rod. To make 0.08333M solution the same concept was used, I mixed 25ml of 0.1M solution with 5ml of deionised water. And to make 0.06666M, we mixed 20ml of 0.1M solution with 10ml of deionised water. e) Other factors are what kind of water to use, I could either use water from the tap, which is not very pure, or it may be too hot or too cold, so we used deionised water. f) Temperature kept constant, by controlling the heater and moves it away when the temperature is over required. 3.1. Results The result are summarised as the following tables and graphs. (Concentration to produce 50cm3 of CO2) VOLUME OF HCL VOLUME WATER Hydrochloric Acid CONCENTRATION TIME sec 30ML 0ML 0.1M 110 25ML 5ML 0.08333M 131 20ML 10ML 0.06666M 183 15ML 15ML 0.05M 228 Reaction Rate when Temperature Increase Concentration M Tem �C Time sec 0.044 50 203 0.044 70 69 0.044 90 32 3.2 Graphs 3.3. Calculations a) In this experiment I have to find the concentration for HCl when it's mixed with M1v1=M2V2 M1 concentration before M2 new concentration V1 volume before adding solution V2 the new volume By adding 5 ml of water to 25ml of HCl M2 =M1 x V1 /V2 M2= 0.1 x 25/30 = 0.08333M Following these steps we can find the concentration of solution we used in our experiment 2 by adding 10 ml of water to 20 ml of HCl the new concentration will be 0.1 x 20/30= 0.0666M 3 by adding 15 ml of water to 15 ml of HCl new concentration is 0.1X 15/30= 0.05M b) From the first graph it takes 220 second to produce 50cm3 of CO2 when the concentration is 0.052M, but it takes 110 second to produce the same volume of CO2 when the concentration is 0.1M but I can see that Concentration 0.052 M � (half) ...read more.

Conclusion

By increasing the concentration of acid, Acid rain also can damage certain building materials and historical monuments. When acid react with limestone and the more concentration the more damage will happen, as in my experiment when concentration increase reaction rate will doubled. Some types of rocks can reduce (neutralize) the acidity of the rain, whereas other rocks have no effect. Calcite (CaCO3) and dolomite [CaMg(CO3)2] are two minerals that greatly mitigate the effects of acid rain; calcite and dolomite are the principal minerals that make up the rocks limestone and dolomite, respectively, as well as marble. For example, the case of sulfuric acid falling on limestone can be summarized by the following reaction: H2SO4 + CaCO3 --> CaSO4.H2O + CO2 The sulfuric acid is neutralized as the mineral gypsum (CaSO4.H2O) and carbon dioxide are produced. Lakes located on, or rivers flowing through, limestone terrains will be neutralized; they will not suffer the consequences of acid rain. The same would be true in dolomite or marble terrains. acid rain is a form of chemical reaction which create from the nature ( in other ward there is no control over its variable, in my experiment I have a full control over the variable of the reaction rate , especially the concentration , that's the different between the chemical reaction in my experiment and acid rain , but we have to notice in country where the sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides found , more acid rain will form as the concentration is higher .when acid rain fall its react with limestone rocks and building , and this will cause a damage for these Buildings . 5.3 risk assessment The safety of this experiment is very important. The things that I will need to do to keep my experiment safe for myself and other students around me are as follows:- 1- Wear safety goggles as I am using hydrochloric acid which can irritate the skin, Care to eyes and the skin besides all the other people is always vital and necessary,2- Care in using glassware since it is sharp when broken and can cut skin. ...read more.

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